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Spacetime built by Quantum Entanglement?

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posted on May, 27 2015 @ 08:24 PM
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Physicists and mathematicians have long sought a Theory of Everything (ToE) that unifies general relativity and quantum mechanics. General relativity explains gravity and large-scale phenomena such as the dynamics of stars and galaxies in the universe, while quantum mechanics explains microscopic phenomena from the subatomic to molecular scales.

The holographic principle is widely regarded as an essential feature of a successful Theory of Everything. The holographic principle states that gravity in a three-dimensional volume can be described by quantum mechanics on a two-dimensional surface surrounding the volume. In particular, the three dimensions of the volume should emerge from the two dimensions of the surface. However, understanding the precise mechanics for the emergence of the volume from the surface has been elusive.

The paper announcing the discovery by Hirosi Ooguri, a Principal Investigator at the University of Tokyo's Kavli IPMU, with Caltech mathematician Matilde Marcolli and graduate students Jennifer Lin and Bogdan Stoica, will be published in Physical Review Letters as an Editors' Suggestion "for the potential interest in the results presented and on the success of the paper in communicating its message, in particular to readers from other fields."

Now, Ooguri and his collaborators have found that quantum entanglement is the key to solving this question. Using a quantum theory (that does not include gravity), they showed how to compute energy density, which is a source of gravitational interactions in three dimensions, using quantum entanglement data on the surface. This is analogous to diagnosing conditions inside of your body by looking at X-ray images on two-dimensional sheets. This allowed them to interpret universal properties of quantum entanglement as conditions on the energy density that should be satisfied by any consistent quantum theory of gravity, without actually explicitly including gravity in the theory. The importance of quantum entanglement has been suggested before, but its precise role in emergence of spacetime was not clear until the new paper by Ooguri and collaborators.


Source


This in a manner of speaking fits into me pet theories in relation to how reality operates but I would like to hear from all of you in relation to the new conclusion.



Any thoughts?
edit on 27-5-2015 by Kashai because: Content edit




posted on May, 27 2015 @ 08:34 PM
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Holographic theory + quantum entanglement/spacetime= teleportation



posted on May, 27 2015 @ 08:47 PM
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a reply to: Kashai

The holographic principle is astounding. I can't wait for some evidence of gravitational waves.

S&F!




posted on May, 27 2015 @ 08:51 PM
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Holographic Universe theory is fantastic but I wonder how it will be interpreted philosophically.

Physicist John Bell in an interview:

“I think it’s a deep dilemma, and the resolution of it [i.e. of Bell’s inequality regarding the nature of objective reality] will
not be trivial; it will require a substantial change in the way we look at things. But I would say that the cheapest resolution is something like going back to relativity as it was before Einstein, when people like Lorentz and Poincaré thought that there was an aether – a preferred frame of reference – but that our measuring instruments were distorted by motion in such a way that we could not detect motion through the aether.

Now, in that way you can imagine that there is a preferred frame of reference, and in this preferred frame of reference things do go faster than light. But then in other frames of reference when they seem to go not only faster than light but backwards in time, that is an optical illusion. … Revolutionary or reactionary, make your choice. But that is certainly the cheapest solution. Behind the apparent Lorentz invariance of phenomena, a deeper level is not Lorentz invariant. … Well, what is not sufficiently emphasized in textbooks, in my opinion, is that the pre-Einstein position of Lorentz and Poincaré, Larmor and Fitzgerald was perfectly coherent, and is not inconsistent with relativity theory. The idea that there is an aether, and that Fitzgerald contractions and Larmor dilations occur, and that as a result the instruments do not detect motion through the aether – that is a perfectly coherent point of view.

... “[ It was abandoned] on the grounds of philosophy; that what is unobservable does not exist. And also on grounds of simplicity, because Einstein found that the theory was both more elegant and simpler when we left out the idea of the aether. I think that the idea of the aether should be taught to students as a pedagogical device, because I find that there are lots of problems which are solved more easily by imagining the existence of an aether. But that’s another story. The reason I want to go back to the idea of an aether here is because in these EPR experiments there is the suggestion that something behind the scenes is going faster than light. Now, if all Lorentz frames are equivalent, that also means that things can go backward in time.

“It introduces great problems, paradoxes of causality and so on. And it’s precisely to avoid these that I want to say there is a real causal sequence which is defined in the aether. Now the mystery is, as with Lorentz and Poincaré, that this aether does not show up at the observational level. It is as if there is some kind of conspiracy, that something is going on behind the scenes which is not allowed to appear on the scenes. And I agree that that’s uncomfortable."




edit on 27-5-2015 by EmptyStations because: (no reason given)



posted on May, 27 2015 @ 08:52 PM
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originally posted by: trifecta
Holographic theory + quantum entanglement/spacetime= teleportation


You might enjoy Greg Bear's Moving Mars.


edit on 27-5-2015 by greencmp because: (no reason given)



posted on May, 27 2015 @ 10:19 PM
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a reply to: EmptyStations

With entanglement from my point of view the paradoxes of faster than light can be resolved since even if things are teleported from one point in space time 3D+1T to another point 3D+1T do not mean it have moved in the space between and have velocity.

Even if you are pendling between 2 points in 3D+1T do not mean you have any velocity in the space in between since you are pendling (existing and not existing) on 2 points while not existing in all other points of 3D+1T. You might be able to have more than 2 points that you can exist and at the same time "not exist" in 3D+1T. Even if you are existing/not existing in all point in space time you would still would not have velocity from my point of view. Since velocity is existing on all points between 2 points in 3D where only time is different (There is no both existing/"not existing" in the points).

Entagnlement is wormhole thinking where all points in 3D+1T can be connected to every other point in 3D+1T.
edit on 27-5-2015 by LittleByLittle because: (no reason given)



posted on May, 27 2015 @ 10:56 PM
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a reply to: LittleByLittle

In my point of view there is a non local frequency domain behind the scenes of the space/time domain. Fourier domain mathematics interaction is happening at all scales. Fourier mathematics is central to holography after all.

Dennis Gabor Comments on Fourier Mathematics:

“Fourier’s theorem makes of description in time and description by the spectrum, two mutually exclusive methods. If ‘frequency’ is used in the strict mathematical sense which applies only to infinite wave-trains, a ‘changing frequency’ becomes a contradiction in terms, as it is a statement involving both time and frequency. [The building blocks of Fourier analysis are sines and cosines, which oscillate for all time.] The terminology of physics has never completely adapted itself to this rigorous mathematical definition of ‘frequency.’”

“Though mathematically [Fourier analysis] is beyond reproach, even experts could not at times conceal an uneasy feeling when it came to the physical interpretation of results obtained by the Fourier method. The reason is that the Fourier-integral method considers phenomena in an infinite interval, sub specie aeternitatis [‘ under the aspect of eternity’], and this is very far from our everyday point of view.”



posted on May, 28 2015 @ 03:17 AM
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a reply to: EmptyStations



“Though mathematically [Fourier analysis] is beyond reproach, even experts could not at times conceal an uneasy feeling when it came to the physical interpretation of results obtained by the Fourier method. The reason is that the Fourier-integral method considers phenomena in an infinite interval, sub specie aeternitatis [‘ under the aspect of eternity’], and this is very far from our everyday point of view.”



That I agree with totally. The mind can have trouble when stuck in 3D+1T to handle the notion of higher than 3D and 1T for instance 4D+2T that we cannot move in and that is unknown to us being stuck on the 3D+1T plane.

The whole flatland example comes to mind.



posted on May, 28 2015 @ 05:48 AM
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originally posted by: Kashai
This in a manner of speaking fits into me pet theories in relation to how reality operates but I would like to hear from all of you in relation to the new conclusion.



Any thoughts?



If you have ever played with "chain/cascaded formulas/logic" in Microsoft Excel, then it gives you a picture of what Quantum Entanglement is about.

It helps simplify the analysis of logical processes with a chain of logic involving partially calculated data displayed in multiple cells to solve far more complex problems....



It makes possible to generate incredibly complex logical computation (in programming) with the algorithm itself remaining easy to debug and to modify.

Makes it possible/easier to make a program that can modify its own code - a feature that is invaluable in Artificial Intelligence (AI) programming.

Ironically, you can create a self-modifying program in Microsoft Excel if you don't mind slow performance.



All this might prove the possibility that the Universe is a computer simulated reality for the purpose of "giving birth" to AI as well as for evaluating evolved AI.
edit on 28-5-2015 by johndeere2020 because: (no reason given)

edit on 28-5-2015 by johndeere2020 because: (no reason given)



posted on May, 28 2015 @ 06:38 PM
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a reply to: trifecta


originally posted by: trifecta
Holographic theory + quantum entanglement/spacetime= teleportation


And time-travel, unless parallel worlds is true and each moment of Earth time (past/present/future - and all possibilities) is its own Earth existing in parallel realities now, which would mean time is only an illusion.



posted on May, 28 2015 @ 06:43 PM
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originally posted by: arpgme
a reply to: trifecta


originally posted by: trifecta
Holographic theory + quantum entanglement/spacetime= teleportation


And time-travel, unless parallel worlds is true and each moment of Earth time (past/present/future - and all possibilities) is its own Earth existing in parallel realities now, which would mean time is only an illusion.


It would make it all an illusion.



posted on May, 28 2015 @ 07:03 PM
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Just like shadows (2nd dimensional beings) are limited by the third dimension, we as third dimensional beings are limited by time-space, which is the 4th dimension (Evolution of Physics, Einstein and Infeld).

The speed of light is the reference frame for time-space. As claimed by the Lorenz Transformation, If an object reaches the speed of light, that object will literally disappear.

Just like shadows are subject to the workings of the third-dimensional beings, third-dimensional beings are subject to the workings of the 4th dimension: Light.

We're a hologram that has already "happened". Our life is us remembering the light. Or not, if we stray off the path.

Anyone heard of Socrates' Theory of Recollection?



posted on May, 28 2015 @ 09:17 PM
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a reply to: arpgme

That is my impression we are a part f a fractal.



posted on May, 29 2015 @ 02:14 AM
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originally posted by: Kashai

The paper announcing the discovery by Hirosi Ooguri, a Principal Investigator at the University of Tokyo's Kavli IPMU, with Caltech mathematician Matilde Marcolli and graduate students Jennifer Lin and Bogdan Stoica, will be published in Physical Review Letters as an Editors' Suggestion "for the potential interest in the results presented and on the success of the paper in communicating its message, in particular to readers from other fields."


The actual paper's abstract:


The Ryu-Takayanagi formula relates the entanglement entropy in a conformal field theory to the area of a minimal surface in its holographic dual. We show that this relation can be inverted for any state in the conformal field theory to compute the bulk stress-energy tensor near the boundary of the bulk spacetime, reconstructing the local data in the bulk from the entanglement on the boundary. We also show that positivity, monotonicity, and convexity of the relative entropy for small spherical domains between the reduced density matrices of any state and of the ground state of the conformal field theory are guaranteed by positivity conditions on the bulk matter energy density. As positivity and monotonicity of the relative entropy are general properties of quantum systems, this can be interpreted as a derivation of bulk energy conditions in any holographic system with the Ryu-Takayanagi prescription applies. We discuss an information theoretical interpretation of the convexity in terms of the Fisher metric.


I'll have another beer, thanks.

edit on 29-5-2015 by mbkennel because: (no reason given)

edit on 29-5-2015 by mbkennel because: (no reason given)



posted on May, 29 2015 @ 11:13 AM
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a reply to: Kashai

Good find!

I've been studying this area for awhile now and this is truly fascinating stuff. This would be a huge Eureka moment for science.

Physicist love Juan Maldacena's AdS/CFT Correspondence because it unifies general relativity and quantum theory in a very elegant way. It has a description of the third dimension on a 2 dimensional surface. This is essentially the Holographic Principle. This Holographic Principle also shows up in String Theories.

The problem with Ads/ CFT is the universe in the theory doesn't look like our universe. Recently, it was shown that this correspondence will work in a universe like ours by Daniel Grumiller and published in Physical Review Letters. There was also the problem as to how the 3D universe emerged until now. There has been rumblings throughout the Physics community about entanglement and it's connection to this for awhile.

This could also mean Gravity is an Entropic force.

It basically goes like this. Think of the Borg in Star Trek. When particles are in a pure state, they're like a happy couple and they share their individual states. So in a pure state a particle may have a 50% chance of spinning clockwise and a 50% chance of spinning counterclockwise.

When these particles interact with other particles they become entangled and this is where the entropy of entanglement occurs. The pure states lose their individuality so to speak and they seek to correlate themselves into the collective or this mixture of entangled particles. So entropy of entanglement can be seen as an increase of correlations between the individual particles and the mixture and the individual particles lose their individually in favor of the collective(Borg).

So you go from information describing a simple 1 (clockwise) 0 (counterclockwise) pure state to information describing a complex mixture of states. This is how gravity emerges if it's an Entropic force or maybe they will find a correct theory that includes quantum gravity.

So at the end of the day, we can be the output of a quantum process that occurs on a two dimensional surface.

We see this in the macroscopic world. You take a hot cup of coffee and set it on the table the coffee particles and air particles will interact and become entangled particles and the hot cup of coffee will get close to room temperature over time. So the foundations of all of this seem to originate with quantum entanglement.

In the end this could be a big step but like with many things more questions will be raised. Why do individual particles seek correlations with the mixture and what determines how this correlation occurs? The Constants of nature like the cosmological constant are fine-tuned and without finding an enormous force to cancel this energy out they can't explain how one part in 10/120 arises naturally even if they find and enormous force that's inline with these theories. Why did the universe begin so far from equilibrium? This brings us back to Boltzmann brains.



posted on May, 29 2015 @ 02:31 PM
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a reply to: neoholographic

There are definitely some theories that treat gravity as a statistical emergent property. This idea has some appeal---explains why it's weak and theoretically incompatible with other microscopic forces---it doesn't exist microscopically. Why haven't we discovered quantum gravity yet? There is no quantum gravity!

And this idea may help reconcile the other unusual anomalies of gravity compared to the Standard Model: somehow it couples to everything, unlike all other physics in the SM, and the coupling terms are bizarre, arbitrary numbers with no particular pattern. And finally, there's that inertial mass == gravitational mass. How the heck does that come about?

If gravity is a consequence of what other stuff in the SM does (i.e. motion and dynamics), instead of adding on to what it is, then those phenomenological properties of gravity are less surprising.


There isn't any deep quantum gravity to discover, any more than we should be looking for that magic microscopic viscosity-physics (i.e. an effect in the macroscopic Navier-Stokes equations) in the collisions of atoms, worrying like crazy that we can't reconcile the theories of dissipative del-squared terms with elastic collisions.

I think Einstein would really like that idea---he was a fantastic statistical physicist.

The downside may be that it would be very hard to engineer, like reversing the 2nd law of thermodynamics. So no warp drive?

And if this were true, another consequence is that superstring theory in large dimensions is simply mathematical invention, proving how clever humans are. Notice how little the extensive math has lead to physical results?



But more entanglement would imply lower entropy---more correlation means fewer independent states and hence lower entropy.
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posted on May, 29 2015 @ 08:25 PM
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"The Worms are the Spice
The Spice are the Worms"

Dune

Any thoughts?
edit on 29-5-2015 by Kashai because: Content edit



posted on May, 29 2015 @ 10:10 PM
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a reply to: mbkennel


One way of understanding the situation is that we are the ones who experience Quantum Gravity.



posted on May, 29 2015 @ 10:16 PM
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originally posted by: mbkennel
a reply to: neoholographic
The downside may be that it would be very hard to engineer, like reversing the 2nd law of thermodynamics. So no warp drive?


If my very basic and incredibly simplified understanding of string theory is correct, it adheres very strictly to the energy conditions of relativity theory. So, string theory would strictly prohibit any type of hypothetical manipulation of gravity. The recent interest in the ER=EPR work further confirms this, where the authors explicitly state the validity of the work rests on wormholes being strictly non-traversable.

Now, for reasons you mentioned, entropic gravity probably does not allow for any type of practical application, but it's too premature to definitively say that. It's also highly possible (and likely) that it wouldn't work in the simple and classical way we understand entropy.

The idea is interesting, but it has a number of serious roadblocks that would need to be addressed such as the Witten-Weinberg theorem and the gravitational bound states of neutrons.
edit on 29-5-2015 by Diablos because: (no reason given)



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