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Gad and the team had exciting news for the waiting journalists. After amplifying DNA from every mummy they tested, they had constructed a five-generation family tree. The anonymous KV55 mummy, the team said, was actually Tutankhamun's father, the revolutionary Akhenaten, while the foetuses were most likely his daughters. But the most jaw-dropping revelation was the secret that had felled the 18th Dynasty: Tutankhamun's parents had been siblings.
Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88: a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages
Although human Y chromosomes belonging to haplogroup R1b are quite rare in Africa, being found mainly in Asia and Europe, a group of chromosomes within the paragroup R-P25* are found concentrated in the central-western part of the African continent, where they can be detected at frequencies as high as 95%. Phylogenetic evidence and coalescence time estimates suggest that R-P25* chromosomes (or their phylogenetic ancestor) may have been carried to Africa by an Asia-to-Africa back migration in prehistoric times. Here, we describe six new mutations that define the relationships among the African R-P25* Y chromosomes and between these African chromosomes and earlier reported R-P25 Eurasian sub-lineages. The incorporation of these new mutations into a phylogeny of the R1b haplogroup led to the identification of a new clade (R1b1a or R-V88) encompassing all the African R-P25* and about half of the few European/west Asian R-P25* chromosomes. A worldwide phylogeographic analysis of the R1b haplogroup provided strong support to the Asia-to-Africa back-migration hypothesis. The analysis of the distribution of the R-V88 haplogroup in >1800 males from 69 African populations revealed a striking genetic contiguity between the Chadic-speaking peoples from the central Sahel and several other Afroasiatic-speaking groups from North Africa. The R-V88 coalescence time was estimated at 9200–5600 kya, in the early mid Holocene. We suggest that R-V88 is a paternal genetic record of the proposed mid-Holocene migration of proto-Chadic Afroasiatic speakers through the Central Sahara into the Lake Chad Basin, and geomorphological evidence is consistent with this view.
Geographical analysis of the Amarna mummies was performed using their autosomal STR profiles based on 8 tested loci.Results are summarized in Table 1 and illustrated in Figure 1. Maps for individual Amarna mummies are included in Figures 2-8 in the Appendix.
Discussion: Average MLI scores in Table 1 indicate the STR profiles of the Amarna mummies would be most frequent in present day populations of several African regions: including the Southern African (average MLI 326.94), African Great Lakes (average MLI 323.76), and Tropical West African (average MLI 83.74) regions. These regional matches do not necessarily indicate an exclusively African ancestry for the Amarna pharaonic family. However, results indicate these ancient individuals inherited soome alleles that today are more frequent in populations of Africa than in other parts of the world (such as D18S51=19 and D21S11=34).
originally posted by: tadaman
a reply to: Spider879
Well I think that we are still talking about ORIGIN, not spread. Spread would be indicative of origin sure, but considering that the presence of R1B in Africa is a rarity, we can not in good faith infer that it is somehow the origin to it. The concentrations of it are plain as day.
The presence of it in Chad and Cameroon is VERY interesting and deserves exhaustive study. I do not subscribe that it is the origin of that haplogroup. IMO there must have been an isolated cultural exchange between several peoples from various groups of Iberia and Africa that later settled in central Africa and the other groups in northern Iberia.
What we can agree on is that the results of Tuts DNA deserve a second look with next generation techniques. Hopefully by sequencing smaller portions of DNA with more advanced methods this can all be put to rest.
BUT, for the time being, until such work is done, the evidence tells us for all intent and purpose, that Tut and his family were related to proto Europeans.
EDIT TO ADD:
Amarna mummies represent a SINGLE cache of mummies. Again, I dont think that we can examine a rarity and say it is representative of the norm.
We need to test ALL MUMMIES.
originally posted by: coomba98
Where did the White man come from?
Africans or Congoid came from Africa;
Asians or Mongoloid came from Asia;
Indians or Malay came from India;
American Indians came from Mesoamerica;
White man or Caucasian came from ???
originally posted by: LABTECH767
Native American's may have many origins including from ancient ice age Europe but the strongest genome is of Asiatic origin and the ancestors whom left this marker in there genes are believed to have crossed the baring straits during the last ice age when a land bridge and a series of close island's made it possible to do so from north eastern asia Siberia to Alaska north western America.
originally posted by: tadaman
a reply to: LABTECH767
Worth a mention.
Basques speak an ergative–absolutive language. I have read that the closest language family to it that we know of is proto saharan.
Does that mean that the Basque originated in the saharan desert? No, just that the last time someone spoke a language like theirs, it was there and was A LONG TIME AGO.
I have said this before, but the results of king Tuts DNA analysis proved without a shadow of a doubt that the dynasty that he hailed from shared a common ancestor with proto Europeans. In other words, King Tut was related to 90% of Irish, 90% of peoples of the UK, 90% of native Iberians, and 70% of the French. Now here is the kicker, there is a 99% probability of genetic relation of the Basque, Northern Spanish and southern French to King Tut.
So let that sink in. Its peer reviewed and though Egyptologists and the government of Egypt tried to hide this fact....it is absolutely true and verified. An international team published the findings after they were tasked with analysing Tuts genetic makeup. They practically had to leave the country in hiding because they had a gag order placed on them. They published it anyways and it is now impossible to deny.
King Tut, who was a descendant of the FOUNDING dynasties of Egypt, was a descendant of proto Europeans.
We have NO IDEA how this can be....
Well, I think I know, but who the hell am I right? LOL...
There is not a single biological element unique to any of the groups we call white, black, Asian, Latino, etc. In fact, no matter how hard people try, there has never been a successful scientific way to justify any racial classification, in biology. This is not to say that humans don’t vary biologically, we do, a lot.
“Racism is not only socially divisive, but also scientifically incorrect. We are all descendants of people who lived in Africa recently,” he says. “We are all Africans under the skin.” The kinds of differences that people notice, such as skin pigmentation, limb length, or other adaptations are “basically surface features that have been selected for in the environment. When you peer beneath the surface at the underlying level of genetic variation, we are all much more similar than we appear to be. There are no clear, sharp delineations.”