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The Kuyunjik tablets texts describe how 1,635 years before the goddess had become angry and left her abode, since then staying in Elam in unbeftting circumstances. The return of the goddess is here represented as the execution of an ancient divine command, with Ashurbanipal taking the role of the predestined champion of the gods who brings Nanaya back to her sanctuary E-hili-anna at the Eanna temple in Uruk.
The king justifes his attack on Elam as divinely ordered retribution for wrongs committed against his ancestors, more specifcally a destruction wrought 1,635 years ago:
“Kudur-Nanhundi, the Elamite who did not respect the oath by the great gods, who in his madness trusted in his own strength, brought his hand against the sanctuaries of the land of Akkad and ruined the land of Akkad”
Later in the text, afer a description of his campaigns against Humban-haltaˇs, the king tells how he escorted the goddess Nanaya back to the Eanna temple
I knew no father or mother, I grew up in the lap of my goddess. As a child the great gods guided me, going with me on the right and left.
The Lady of Nineveh, the mother who bore me, endowed me with unparalleled kingship; the Lady of Arbela, my creator, ordered everlasting life for me.
In the Hellenistic period Nanaya or Nanâ was frequently assimilated with Artemis.
A Roman temple for Artemis-Nanâ was built in the middle of the city of Dura Europos, and a dedicatory inscription identified Nanȃ as the chief goddess of that city. In this temple were erected the images of Aphrodite (winged victory), and Tyche or Fortuna which shows that Nanâ combined her characteristics with all those Graeco-Roman divinities.
An inscription accompanying the image of Artemis in Greek dress on a tessera from Palmyra identifies her as Nanaya
Her cult is also known from Aššur and Hatra. Nanai or Nanaya had the epithet “the great goddess of the entire earth”
Hear o regions of the world the praise of queen nanay
Glorify the beautiful one, extol her of voice resounding
Exalt the splendid one, hail the mighty one
Make continuous prayer and entreaty to her.
Wilkens argues that Troy was located in England on the Gog Magog Downs in Cambridgeshire. He believes that Celts living there were attacked around 1200 BC by fellow Celts from the continent to battle over access to the tin mines in Cornwall as tin was a very important component for the production of bronze.
According to Wilkens, St Michael's Mount is the site of Scylla and Charybdis
Wilkens further hypothesises that the Sea Peoples found in the Late Bronze Age Mediterranean were Celts, who settled in Greece and the Aegean Islands as the Achaeans and Pelasgians. They named new cities after the places they had come from and brought the oral poems that formed the basis of the Iliad and the Odyssey with them from western Europe. Wilkens writes that, after being orally transmitted for about four centuries, the poems were translated and written down in Greek around 750 BC. The Greeks, who had forgotten about the origins of the poems, located the stories in the Mediterranean, where many Homeric place names could be found, but the poems' descriptions of towns, islands, sailing directions and distances were not altered to fit the reality of the Greek setting. He also writes that "It also appears that Homer's Greek contains a large number of loan words from western European languages, more often from Dutch rather than English, French or German." These languages are considered by linguists to have not existed until around 1000 years after Homer. Wilkens argues that the Atlantic Ocean was the theatre for the Odyssey instead of the Mediterranean. For example: he locates Scylla and Charybdis at present day St Michael's Mount.
Inula, the Latin classical name for the plant, is considered to be a corruption of the Greek word Helenion which in its Latinized form, Helenium, is also now applied to the same species. There are many fables about the origin of this name. Gerard tells us: 'It took the name Helenium of Helena, wife of Menelaus, who had her hands full of it when Paris stole her away into Phrygia.' Another legend states that it sprang from her tears: another that Helen first used it against venomous bites; a fourth, that it took the name from the island Helena, where the best plants grew.
The genus Inula comprises more than one hundred species widespread in temperate regions of Europe and Asia. Uses of this genus as herbal medicines have been first recorded by the Greek and Roman ancient physicians. These medicines are used as expectorants, antitussives, diaphoretics, antiemetics, and bactericides. Moreover, Inula helenium L. which is mentioned in Minoan, Mycenaean, Egyptian/Assyrian pharmacotherapy and Chilandar Medical Codex
Some Hittite texts mention a nation lying to the west called Ahhiyawa. In the earliest reference to this land, a letter outlining the treaty violations of the Hittite vassal Madduwatta, it is called Ahhiya. Another important example is the Tawagalawa Letter written by an unnamed Hittite king (most probably Hattusili III) of the empire period (14th–13th century BC) to the king of Ahhiyawa, treating him as an equal and suggesting that Miletus (Millawanda) was under his control. It also refers to an earlier "Wilusa episode" involving hostility on the part of Ahhiyawa. Ahhiya(wa) has been identified with the Achaeans of the Trojan War and the city of Wilusa with the legendary city of Troy (note the similarity with early Greek Ϝίλιον Wilion, later Ἴλιον Ilion, the name of the acropolis of Troy). The exact relationship of the term Ahhiyawa to the Achaeans beyond a similarity in pronunciation was hotly debated by scholars, even following the discovery that Mycenaean Linear B is an early form of Greek; the earlier debate was summed up in 1984 by Hans G. Güterbock of the Oriental Institute. More recent research based on new readings and interpretations of the Hittite texts, as well as of the material evidence for Mycenaean contacts with the Anatolian mainland, came to the conclusion that Ahhiyawa referred to the Mycenaean world, or at least to a part of it.
Considering this time interval, any serious historian should admit thatthe Greek élites cannot have been totally unaware of the political developments taking place in the Near East; further, it is also possible to claim that they cannot have been totally extraneous to them. Moreover,ignorance and extraneousness are simply unbelievable for the late eighth and the seventh centuries, when the Assyrian imperial expansion reached its zenith and represented the main political problem in the whole Near East. As a matter of fact, Assyrian official documents like royal inscriptions and letters surely datable to this time span clearly at-test to the involvement of Greeks in the Near Eastern scenario. In these texts, they are designated
Iamnāia, i.e. »Ionians«, and they are depicted as raiding the Near Eastern Mediterranean coasts.
If these arguments are true, the incipit of the Iliad may be framed withsome degree of confidence into that constellation of ideological mes-sages aiming at soliciting resistance to Assyria which circulated in the Near East during the eighth and seventh centuries. The appeal to unityand concord against an impending attack may be better understood – Ithink – as an appeal against one specific impending attack, the attack par excellence, the Assyrian attack. And further, the appeal to unity and con-cord among Greeks may be framed into the ideological and politicalattitude of those Greek élites who opposed Assyria
originally posted by: Kantzveldt
a reply to: Blackmarketeer
It's probable the Greeks did base their epic on conflicts and grievances remembered from the Middle Bronze age, the tale as it was set out though makes more sense for the century BC were Sparta had risen to become the major land power around 650 BC and the main protaganist in the conflict.
It's perhaps the case then that not only were they inspired by Ashurbanipal's quest to recover Nanaya but also the remembering and acting upon grievances from the distant past and thus set out a tale involving their own.
You are she who displays shining cornelian from the mountains to be admired. Bringing shining lapis lazuli from the bright mountain on special rafts, you are she who, like fire, melts gold from Harali. You are she who creates apples in their clusters.
originally posted by: punkinworks10646bc ( the time frame of the Assyrian story)+ 1635 ,which puts initial loss of inna roughly at =2,281bc which puts it in the last decades of the Akkadian empire. The Akkadians controlled trade from the Persian gulf to the eastern med. Specifically they traded with the Creteans. When the empire fully collapsed members of the royal family, the court and high ranking military members fled west.
Around this same time there is a distinct change in cretean culture, large military structures show up for the first time along with the large palaces. It's essentially the birth of Minoan culture as we understand it.
We're the Minoan likely jumpstarted by a group of Akkadian refugees?
…another Trojan ally arrives, Memnon, son of Eos and Tithonus, leading an Ethiopian contingent and wearing armour made by the god Hephaestus. In battle, Memnon kills Antilochus, a Greek warrior who was the son of Nestor Achilles then kills Memnon, and Zeus makes Memnon immortal at Eos' request.
But Memnon himself was, as Tithonus 1, related to the East, and he is said to have built a palace of many colored and shining white stones bound with gold in the city of Ecbatana. For Memnon, starting from Ethiopia, overrun Egypt and conquered the East as far as the city of Susa, which he surrounded by walls. So Memnon, although being king of the Ethiopians, came to Troy, not from what today is called Africa, but from Susa, not far away from the river Tigris, in the land that later became Persia. And when he made his march to the west, he subdued all the peoples that lived between Susa and Troy.
According to Quintus Smyrnaeus, Memnon came not from the east, but was raised by the Hesperides on the coast of Oceanus. This would make Memnon king of the west and son of the east, as his father Tithonus was a Trojan by birth; from the western Ocean Troy lies towards the dawn (the east), the true homeland of Memnon's father. His mother Eos was also the mother of the west wind Zephyrus, which according to Homer blows from the ocean to give cool air to humanity. The goddess Dawn and her father Hyperion (god of the sun) travel from the east to the west to bring light to the whole earth.