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Alcoholism treatment revolutionized by ...insurance?

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posted on Mar, 21 2015 @ 02:29 PM
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a reply to: scghst1

I personally hold nothing against AA. It helped my mother, sober for 33 yrs.




posted on Mar, 21 2015 @ 02:32 PM
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originally posted by: crayzeed
My 2 step cure for alcoholism.
Step 1, take ALL their money off them, result:- they can't but booze.
Step 2, break ALL their fingers, result, they can't hold a glass or bottle. Job done.
Just for all you Americans that's called sarcasm.

The point is a lot of alcoholics don't have any money - they live off others and feel very guilty for their actions which makes them drink more - they become devious.

edit on 21-3-2015 by Itisnowagain because: (no reason given)



posted on Mar, 21 2015 @ 02:41 PM
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a reply to: Uphill

Thank you all for the discussion so far. I don't know if the April 2015 Atlantic has hit the newsstands yet ...when it does, I'll let you know if there's more info there than just the text of that article.

I look forward to seeing the comments of health care providers in this thread. A special thanks to those of you with firsthand experience in seeing the dreadful toll of alcohol, either in yourself, or someone you know. In my opinion the physical toll of alcoholism is matched only by the psychological shaming involved, the ultimate blaming of the victim. Now that more proven treatment methods are being identified, perhaps the shaming will be the first thing to be dropped in all the cultural dysfunction that arisen around this disease.

edit on 3/21/2015 by Uphill because: Rewording



posted on Mar, 21 2015 @ 02:59 PM
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originally posted by: Autorico
a reply to: Itisnowagain

There are also medications for alcoholism. " disulfiram (Antabuse) may help to prevent you from drinking, although it won't cure alcoholism or remove the compulsion to drink. If you drink alcohol, the drug produces a physical reaction that may include flushing, nausea, vomiting and headaches. Naltrexone (Revia), a drug that blocks the good feelings alcohol causes, may prevent heavy drinking and reduce the urge to drink. Acamprosate (Campral) may help you combat alcohol cravings. Unlike disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate don't make you feel sick after taking a drink."

Source www.mayoclinic.org...


I have a genetic problem where I don't make enough of the enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. So I get nasty headaches and a queezy stomach if I drink more than two beers. I used to have the philosophy that if I drink more than two drinks, I might as well get drunk because I was going to pay either way. I doubt if you could become an alcoholic if you were to take that pill, if it is anything like what I experience, you do not want to drink more than once a week. I played a lot of foosball, played pool, and danced when I would go to the bars. That way I didn't have to drink so much.

If I wouldn't have got such a bad hangover I could have become addicted I suppose. I did have another problem with drinking also, I have always been hypoglycemic and the alcohol would give me the night spins because drinking more than four or five drinks caused my sugar to drop too low. That really sucked too.

I made a piss poor drinker, but I kept trying and paid the price. I had a lot of friends that went to the bars. It was a great social adventure when you were young.



posted on Mar, 21 2015 @ 03:05 PM
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originally posted by: Autorico
a reply to: scghst1

I personally hold nothing against AA. It helped my mother, sober for 33 yrs.


My apologies, I was assuming your comment was like most people's uneducated responses around here. It seems like 99% of the world knows nothing about the program, and 80% of that 99 seems to outright hate it. I don't know why or how people get their information about AA, but the fact that it has changed and completely rebuilt the lives of millions isn't shared too much with the public. I have found more criticism and hatred towards AA on ATS than I have found in the real world. It's sad that more ignorance flows more here than on the streets about certain issues.



posted on Mar, 21 2015 @ 03:11 PM
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originally posted by: [post=19146005]Itisnowagain
The point is a lot of alcoholics don't have any money - they live off others and feel very guilty for their actions which makes them drink more - they become devious.


Where the HELL did you get that "information"??? That's clearly an opinion of what YOU and what most of society THINKS about alcoholics. I have met more hard working people who held jobs, paid bills, and had families while drinking than I have met "deadbeats" like you have described in AA.

You truly have no idea what you're talking about, and you let your own delusional opinions become fact in your own head. For the love of god will you stop spewing uneducated, ignorant comments on ATS.



posted on Mar, 21 2015 @ 04:17 PM
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originally posted by: Itisnowagain

originally posted by: AreUKiddingMe

originally posted by: Itisnowagain
a reply to: Uphill
Paul Hedderman did AA and recovered.
Here he reflects on the 12 steps.

It is a very enlightening look at alcoholism.



Do you know the actual success rate of the "AA 12-step program"? It's very dismal. Like one percent.

Did you watch the video and hear Paul Hedderman 'reflect' on the 12 steps?


No I didn't watch the video. I heard enough of that for 3 years straight. I don't drink now but it's because of my choices. I make better choices now. Been there, done that with the 12 steps.



posted on Mar, 21 2015 @ 04:21 PM
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Hey there, great thread. I don't see enough raised about this question, though, I think: If you test positive in a blood test in which they have to look for it, and it's a specific test, candida systemic, then it's in your brain, and the fungal spores will drive you to alcohol, because it provides a sugar flush in your brain, that the candida needs to proliferate and live.



posted on Mar, 21 2015 @ 07:25 PM
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a reply to: Uphill

Thank you for posting this article. As a long term member of AA, I agree with several of their points:

1) There is no quantifable for recovery (definition anyone) among self-identified AA members.
2) The god language sends away many a newcomer or vistor.
3) That we know much more today then we did in the mid 1930 about brain function and alcohol metabolism.
and
4) That other modalities can be helpful or sufficient for recovery (by your own definition.

That said, here are some points they missed in the article.

1) AA is free. AA members give back when they can by donation or what we call the 7th Tradition which states: "Every A.A. group ought to be fully self-supporting, declining outside contributions." AA as a whole takes this very seriously, both the 'free' to anyone and the 'self-supporting', and even limits yearly contributions from members.

2) AA is available almost everywhere, with online meetings, anytime of the day when support is needed and again it's for free.

3) AA is more about becoming a productive and rational member of society then about stopping alcohol. These other modalities assume that the substance, in this case, alcohol is the problem and all will be well without the substance (or the controled use of that substance). This is rarely the case, perhaps for very young users, but not for those with some mileage in their disease. Recovery is about learning how to live in society.

2) Using drugs to curb 'alcohol-use disorder' may help but using a 'drug' over the course of your lifetime to maintain sobriety seems exploitive and excessive.

3) The article only speaks to alcoholics - pure alcoholics, of which there are very few these days. Addiction to any substance or activity can be addressed by 12-step programs. I don't honestly know about the track record of drug treatment on say sex or video game addiction.

My involvement with AA has varied over the years, I tried many other modalities and found they worked for awhile. I also found that stopping alcohol did not in fact solve my problems, that the problem resided in me and that, as the big book of AA states "Our liquor was but a symptom. So we had to get down to causes and conditions".

It's in getting to those 'causes and conditions' (a very buddhist concept BTW) where AA really shines.

The recommendations in this article seem to be directed to the newcomer to recovery and could be very beneficial to those in the early days and months of treatment. Continuing support, free or paid for, is very important.

Now, about the god stuff. There is a growing call in AA as a whole to address this very serious problem. There have been calls to remove the word god from the book entirely. This was a real deal-breaker for me and the biggest hurdle I had to overcome to achieve lasting and happy recovery. I'm an athestist. I don't believe in any single creator god. I believe that life is an emergent property of a system of ever increasing complexity that we call creation. No 'designer' is required for that.

Now Faith is necessary, well, just to get out of bed in the morning. I have faith in that system called creation, and in more advanced beings (be they of whatever origins or species - or self-created). Basically the idea behind, I repeat, behind the word god (in all non-religious use) is just what you have faith in. For many it is money, power, a specific man or woman, a religion, a specific god, it can be anything. Personally I have Faith in natural things, I don't go for the doorknob god, but I do use my homegroup sometimes. I just have faith now - the object of that faith and my prayers tend to vary to meet my needs at any given time.

I have a few friends that have maintaned sobriety without AA, though every one did attend consistantly for a time and learned many useful things that they took into their lives and continued to apply. I've know people who could 'control' their drinking and were miserable for life.

The great test for any addictic is whether you can 'control' and 'enjoy' your _______. Any us can enjoy our drinking when it's not under control or we can control our drinking but certainly not enjoy it. Non-alcoholics and 'cured' alcoholics must, I repeat, must be able to do both similtainiously, both 'control' and 'enjoy'.

If you don't think AA is useful, don't come. But know, that it will be hear when all other self or insurnce paid options run out.

We know the hope for long-term sobriety and recovery is very low (in fact we tend to use 3% as a rule whereas the article quoted 6-7% - yippee) but our best change is in the rooms, surrounded by others, helping others, reaching out to those in pain, and growing spirituality every day. That is the key "progress not perfection"
edit on 21-3-2015 by FyreByrd because: (no reason given)



posted on Mar, 22 2015 @ 03:09 AM
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a reply to: scghst1

originally posted by: scghst1

originally posted by: [post=19146005]Itisnowagain
The point is a lot of alcoholics don't have any money - they live off others and feel very guilty for their actions which makes them drink more - they become devious.


Where the HELL did you get that "information"??? That's clearly an opinion of what YOU and what most of society THINKS about alcoholics.

Have you lived with an alcohol dependant person?
Check online what it is like for someone close to an alcoholic.

As the addict becomes more irresponsible, we pick up the slack and do more, often becoming the sole functioning parent or even the sole provider. We’re unable to lean on our partner for comfort or support. Meanwhile, we rescue him or her from disasters, medical emergencies, accidents, or jail, make excuses for no-shows at work and family gatherings, and patch up damaged property, relationships, and self-inflicted mishaps. We may also endure financial hardship, criminality, domestic violence, or infidelity due to the addict’s behavior.
psychcentral.com...

I'm completely at my wits end right now with my partners drinking. I was lulled into this relationship not knowing how much of an issue it really was. It wasn't until I was living with him I began to understand. He had painted this wonderful lifestyle of friends and family and holidays and being in a vulnerable place from a previous bad relationship, I fell for it. He has a good job earning good money but every month all the money is gone soon after pay day because of the debt he had run up. He's lost his licence through drink before I met him and has been injured twice when he was drunk. I don't drink myself which gives him ammunition against any reasoning I try to make him see. He blames his thyroid as an excuse for the hot sweats and shaking he suffers. The true unpredictability about his drinking is that he he doesn't do it every day, or at least I don't think he doesn't. He has a job where he can drink but can when he's away from it abroad or again at home. But when he drinks he doesn't have an off button. He drinks until he is drunk and then he becomes abusive verbally and just vile.I don't know him! Sad thing is that his aging parents have put up with this for over ten years now. It is destroyed them. They have given him money and nursed him through times when they feared for his safety when he was so drunk he couldn't stand. I'm at my wits end. I can't cope with this existence but I can't afford to leave. I have nowhere to go with no money and nobody I can talk to anymore. I just feel so alone and dread him coming home because I know it will mean more drinking and unpredictable behaviour which is what is destroying me. I truly feel suicide is my only escape but am scared to leave behind the shame. Can anyone help please. I'm desperate.
www.alcoholissues.co.uk...
It was only after life here had got so chaotic that I went online to get some understanding about my partners drinking, his behaviour and his debt - before I knew what the issue was I had paid off £3000 of his debt thinking that it was the debt that was making him miserable. There is some great advice online about how drinking effects the mood - money problems are just one thing that can make them angry. I realized that the money I paid off was just money that had been spent on alcohol instead of rent etc. I realized that I had to stop helping with money because I was enabling him. I had to stop seeing him because I could not stop wanting to help because his sob stories were always - 'I need to pay such and such but I have no money'. Yet he always has money for drink.

edit on 22-3-2015 by Itisnowagain because: (no reason given)



posted on Mar, 22 2015 @ 09:43 AM
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originally posted by: Autorico
a reply to: Itisnowagain

Oh I totally agree. It's like former smokers who turn to over eating. It's the same repetitive motion. And another example, I used to drink to excess, then I started toking (not trying to promote it). The pot replaced aclohol.


Good choice, one is much safer than the other.



posted on Mar, 23 2015 @ 12:26 PM
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a reply to: FyreByrd

Everyone, I have copies now of the April 2015 Atlantic magazine. The only added feature for this article in the print edition is the text of the AA 12 steps, in its original format. Yes, that shows numerous references to God, although I attended an AA meeting with a friend about 15 years ago where the phrase "higher power" was used in place of the word "God."

I bought extra copies of this magazine issue to give to physicians I know. In my view, this author does seek to describe some strengths of AA as well as its documented weaknesses. The benefit of this article for clinicians is that it cites several recent and one classic (The Handbook of Alcoholism Treatment Approaches) authoritative book(s) on medical treatment options; it also includes interview opinions from health care and/or research professionals on several potentially helpful medications that have been severely underutilized to date, at least in the USA.

I also recently read a book on insulin that suggest a likely biochemical reason for the depression that so often accompanies alcoholism.



posted on Mar, 23 2015 @ 12:39 PM
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originally posted by: AreUKiddingMe

originally posted by: Itisnowagain
a reply to: Uphill
Paul Hedderman did AA and recovered.
Here he reflects on the 12 steps.

It is a very enlightening look at alcoholism.



Do you know the actual success rate of the "AA 12-step program"? It's very dismal. Like one percent.


Well, it's actually closer to about 10%, but yes ... it's pretty dismal. The reason everyone thinks it works is because one of the 12 steps is to go out and tell everyone about it and recruit others.

AA works for people it works for -- usually people that have religion in their lives already. It hasn't been changed since it was invented in the 1930's by Bill W, who based it on the Oxford group (who were really into the Nazi movement in Germany).

Would you let a brain surgeon from 1933 operate on you? I sure as hell wouldn't...

From my experience, AA has a huge turnover or "churn" rate. Only about 1/10 people you see at a meeting will still be at meetings a year later. AA might help new people to sobriety meet other people and have someplace to go, but for most it just isn't a sustainable life solution.

Who wants to live one day at a time struggling and crawling through life, still a slave to an addiction? Not me. One day at a time sounds like one is waiting for the inevitable shoe to drop, and a relapse to occur.

One of the biggest problems I have with AA is they never teach people to fundamentally change their core beliefs about alcohol. There are plenty of "old timers" that still crave a drink 30+ years after quitting. As long as you view your substance of choice as something of value, you're always going to miss it. It's doubly hard when it's something you can't have. I call this for "forbidden fruit" syndrome.

You ideally want to get to a place where you don't even want to partake in your addictive behavior anymore because you've gotten to the root physiological cause of your addiction.

The disease model of alcoholism is very much up in the air -- they haven't really nailed down a SINGLE gene, or even a set of genes that prove you are an alcoholic. At best, they've got some evidence supporting a "possible link" to alcoholism. Even the famous twin studies, if looked in depth show very little correlation to genetics being a factor.

This is something I have spent an exhaustive amount of time researching, and what it really comes down to is the so-called "professionals" are using out-dated methods of treating addiction because the industry is hell-bent on the revolving door of addicts. Treatment centers are expensive, and insurance companies shell out big bucks.

Therapists and treatment counselors really do think they are helping...but I wonder if they ever look at their success rates and wonder if there is a better way?



posted on Mar, 26 2015 @ 11:52 AM
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a reply to: MystikMushroom

You ideally want to get to a place where you don't even want to partake in your addictive behavior anymore because you've gotten to the root physiological cause of your addiction.

What is the root cause?

AA takes a spiritual approach and the word 'spiritual' is taken for religion and maybe scares a lot of people away. But it is not about religion - it is about realizing that you (alcohol dependant) are powerless when it comes to alcohol and realizing that the disease cannot be cured with the mind - that it has to given over to a power greater than the mind. This 'greater than the mind' is taken to be religion.



posted on Mar, 26 2015 @ 11:57 AM
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a reply to: Itisnowagain

For a lot of people the root cause is an overwhelming sense of powerlessness. An addictive action is a way for the person to feel more in control of their own life. Drinking or drug using is something they can DO themselves that changes how they feel. More often than not these people feel victim to circumstances and situations that they feel they have no control over.

I've even heard this many times. A guy will feel trapped in a loveless marriage and stop every day after work for drinks. A mother with a distant husband and rowdy child will take pills. Both of these people feel stuck and helpless, and their addictive actions are a way for them to feel as if they have regained a sense of control over how they feel.

People with addictions need to stop and think about how they were feeling just prior to committing the addictive action. If they can do this, it often time sheds a wealth of information into the nature of their addiction.



posted on Mar, 26 2015 @ 12:03 PM
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a reply to: scghst1

No worries or offence taken



posted on Mar, 26 2015 @ 12:03 PM
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a reply to: Shakawkaw

safer and cheaper, lol



posted on Mar, 26 2015 @ 12:28 PM
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a reply to: Itisnowagain

Here is a good passage from the book, "The Heart of Addiction" by Lance M. Dodes, M.D.



The "surrendering" idea is, as the quotation above from AA indicates, explicitly based on the notion that alcoholism or any addiction, is a sign of your failure, so you should give up belief that you can manage your own life. It is another idea that is backward, based on a misunderstanding of the nature of addiction. It does not understand that alcoholism, like any addiction is a displaced effort to exercise a necessary, healthy power against helplessness, and is a sign of inhibition of the direct exercise of power. Accordingly, the appropriate solution is not to shamefacedly admit that you cannot manage your life, but to take over more management of your life - by understanding yourself and your addiction better so you can use that understanding to take power more directly in the place of the addiction. The last thing you want to do is give up on taking control of your life.


Look, AA might have worked for you or someone you loved -- but it only seems to work about 10% of the time. If you were to go to the same meeting for a year, only about 10% of the same people would still be there. There's also no guarantee that those people didn't relapse. Sure 10% is better than nothing, but AA has been around since the 1930's. Would you let a brain surgeon from the 1930's operate on you?

AA also makes family members of alcoholics feel better because it's something you can DO. It sounds science-y because it has "steps". It's a place you can go and show that you are DOING something. The real work is inside of you, not sitting in a room listening to other people's drunklouges.

SMART Recovery is an option for people seeking non-religious/spiritual based recovery. SMART uses REBT (rational emotive behavioral therapy). Some people really like it. It's also free to attend, and there are no spiritual or religious elements to it.

AA can also be dangerous. Many courts now mandate that people attend AA. Due to the nature of AA, you may very well be sitting next to a sex offender and not realize it. Bill W, the founder of AA was also AA's first "13th Stepper".

Thirteenth Stepping is when a more experienced AA member takes advantage of a younger, newer member -- usually female. There have been cases where women have been raped and murdered by people they've met and trusted in AA. AA has no accountability due to it's "anonymous" nature. There's a movie called The 13th Step that deals with the dangers posed by AA.

You can have spirituality without "religion" but you can't have religion without spirituality. There is a reason that in several court cases, the courts have upheld that AA is indeed religious. Here's one Federal case from 2007:

Inouye v. Kemna, 504 F.3d 705 (9th Cir. 2007)
Federal Court of Appeals, 9th Circuit



The 9th Circuit reversed and remanded, holding that it is established law that A.A. is religious in nature and that participation in the program cannot be coerced where a parolee objects to its religious content.


It's funny, you never see anyone closing an AA meeting with a Muslim prayer in Arabic -- usually it's the Lord's Prayer or the Serenity Prayer. I wonder if an AA group would have a problem with closing a meeting with a Hindu prayer?

The thing is, the entire organization's tenets and beliefs were taken from the Oxford Group, who were a bunch of fundie Christians in the 1930's. Addiction to them was a moral defect. Wait...a moral defect of character? I thought alcoholism was a disease?

If alcoholism is a disease, then it's not a character defect. AA tries to have it all claiming that alcoholism is a failure of moral character and a disease at the same time. These two things are not mutually exclusive.

AA has all the hallmark qualities of a cult. Having said that, for some people it's better to be sober in a cult than destroying their lives or the lives of others. AA has indeed helped many people, but I think people need to be shown that there are a myriad of other more modern approaches to dealing with alcoholism and addiction.

AA is not for everyone, and it shouldn't be touted as the only way for everyone.
edit on 26-3-2015 by MystikMushroom because: (no reason given)



posted on Mar, 26 2015 @ 01:13 PM
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a reply to: MystikMushroom
I can tell you feel very strongly about your stance on AA.
I was presenting Paul Hedderman 'reflecting' on AAs message, his experience with AA and how it came to work for him. I wasn't trying to sell AA.
If you do not like it and judge it before actually listening that is ok.

Thank you for sharing the book you mentioned "The Heart of Addiction" by Lance M. Dodes, M.D.
- it looks very interesting on Amazon.

edit on 26-3-2015 by Itisnowagain because: (no reason given)



posted on Mar, 26 2015 @ 02:16 PM
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originally posted by: MystikMushroom

AA works for people it works for -- usually people that have religion in their lives already. It hasn't been changed since it was invented in the 1930's by Bill W, who based it on the Oxford group (who were really into the Nazi movement in Germany).



I'd like a verifiable reference for the Oxford group being really into the Nazi movement.

Another offshoot of the Oxford Groups is 'the Family':


They insist they are just a group of friends, yet they funnel millions of dollars through tax-free corporations. They claim to disdain politics, but congressmen of both parties describe them as the most influential religious organization in Washington. They say they are not Christians, but simply believers.

Behind the scenes at every National Prayer Breakfast since 1953 has been the Family, an elite network dedicated to a religion of power for the powerful. Their goal is "Jesus plus nothing." Their method is backroom diplomacy. The Family is the startling story of how their faith—part free-market fundamentalism, part imperial ambition—has come to be interwoven with the affairs of nations around the world.


www.amazon.com...

Now they are more then likely 'into the Nazi thing'.

Using 'guilt by association' is a poor argument in any discussion especially when a personal bias is clearly shown in your language.

My experience tells me that a goodly proportion of those coming to AA are not religious, in fact many have been 'failed' by religion.




Would you let a brain surgeon from 1933 operate on you? I sure as hell wouldn't...



No, and that is a valid point in the referenced article, that we have much more knowledge of the biological effects of alcoholism and other addicitons. In the endless nature vs nurture debate, environmental and societal causes and effects of addiction are also more well know. However, neither, provides much useful information for life beyond 'Detox' and that is where AA steps in.

Nobody, or mostly, detoxes in someone's kitchen anymore. Your assumptions about modern AA are not based on fact.

Things this article fails to mention at all is there definition of long-term sobriety or recovery and I suspect they don't because there is no evidence for it using the recommended and studied medical modalities which clearly focus on detox and not long term success.




From my experience, AA has a huge turnover or "churn" rate. Only about 1/10 people you see at a meeting will still be at meetings a year later. AA might help new people to sobriety meet other people and have someplace to go, but for most it just isn't a sustainable life solution.



Quite true - there is a lot of turn-over in specific AA groups.




Who wants to live one day at a time struggling and crawling through life, still a slave to an addiction? Not me. One day at a time sounds like one is waiting for the inevitable shoe to drop, and a relapse to occur.

One of the biggest problems I have with AA is they never teach people to fundamentally change their core beliefs about alcohol. There are plenty of "old timers" that still crave a drink 30+ years after quitting. As long as you view your substance of choice as something of value, you're always going to miss it. It's doubly hard when it's something you can't have. I call this for "forbidden fruit" syndrome.



You are very badly mistaken here and I'm truly sorry you experience (perception) was so poor. Yes there are many un-happy recovery alocohlics - we call them DRY. And trying to live life with Dry Untreated Alcoholism is a sort of hell.

AA does teach and model a whole new way of living, of perceiving life from a other-centered rather then self-centered place.

Did you know that 'cravings' do go away for those who do the work. One doesn't get struck 'sober' or 'happy' or 'successful', it requires a lot of often very uncomfortable work. The huge egos of addicts don't like being examined and that it what it takes - taking on the devil of your own ego. This is also why so many fail - and no medical intervention in the world is going to fix that basic CAUSE.



You ideally want to get to a place where you don't even want to partake in your addictive behavior anymore because you've gotten to the root physiological cause of your addiction.

The disease model of alcoholism is very much up in the air -- they haven't really nailed down a SINGLE gene, or even a set of genes that prove you are an alcoholic. At best, they've got some evidence supporting a "possible link" to alcoholism. Even the famous twin studies, if looked in depth show very little correlation to genetics being a factor.

This is something I have spent an exhaustive amount of time researching, and what it really comes down to is the so-called "professionals" are using out-dated methods of treating addiction because the industry is hell-bent on the revolving door of addicts. Treatment centers are expensive, and insurance companies shell out big bucks.

Therapists and treatment counselors really do think they are helping...but I wonder if they ever look at their success rates and wonder if there is a better way?


Yep - a reductionist here. Genes are only a small part of the equation. Much more are the habits that our modeled to us from birth by parents, siblings, TV, society as a whole and we live in an Addiction Driven Society.

You want sound medicine and actual practise with addicts - you want to talk about 'evidence based treatment watch this video:



The definition of addiction has to be broadened considerably, see another Gabor Mate video:



And about the biggest addiction of them all:



Self-centered tunnel vision is a symptom.



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