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What is Hydrogen Sulfide?

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posted on Feb, 26 2015 @ 07:39 PM
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The next two chapters of my book, Fever Rising, focus on methane's deadly partner in global warming, H2S. First, a chapter that explains just what hydrogen sulfide is and how dangerous it is to humans at certain levels. The next chapter, tomorrow, will focus on hydrogen sulfide's role in global warming. Here are the first six threads in this series.

The Mystery of the Clintonville Booms
The Jumping Jack Flash Hypothesis
The Rise of Deadly Methane Gas
The Truth about Atmospheric Methane and it's Role in Global Warming
Methane and Fracking, part 1
Methane and Fracking, part 2

Chapter 8: What is Hydrogen Sulfide?

Methane gas has a deadly partner in this extinction level event. In some ways, hydrogen sulfide gas is more dangerous than methane. Hydrogen sulfide, also known as sewer gas, stink damp, swamp gas and manure gas, is also releasing in major amounts from many of the same sources as methane. It occurs naturally in crude petroleum and natural gas and it’s also produced by the bacterial breakdown of organic materials.

Hydrogen sulfide is also produced by human and animal waste. Mostly, when produced by waste, it’s in sanitary and wastewater treatment operations. Whenever you have a septic system that has stagnation of fluid, it creates the perfect environment to produce hydrogen sulfide. These conditions occur when bacteria use up all of the oxygen while decomposing organic matter in wastewater for energy. Sewers that have a low velocity encourage more of this growth of the anaerobic bacteria in a slime layer coating in the sewer. When the bacteria reduce sulfate, it produces sulfides. The sulfides cannot oxidize in these anaerobic conditions and therefore they combine with hydrogen to produce the deadly, flammable gas we know as hydrogen sulfide and the “rotten egg” smell.

Hydrogen sulfide is also produced by natural gas drilling and refining, agricultural operations with confined animal feeding, and food processing facilities where there are feeding operations. Landfills, tanneries, pulp mills and coke ovens also produce the gas.

The following article on sources and effects on humans can be found at
www.euro.who.int...
Sources
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colourless gas, soluble in various liquids including water and alcohol. It can be formed under conditions of deficient oxygen, in the presence of organic material and sulfate. Most of the atmospheric hydrogen sulfide has natural origins. Hydrogen sulfide occurs around sulfur springs and lakes, and is an air contaminant in geothermally active areas. Saline marshes can also produce sulfide (1). The estimated global release of hydrogen sulfide from saline marshes into the atmosphere is 8.3 × 10 tonnes per year.

Human activities can release naturally occurring hydrogen sulfide into ambient air. For instance, some natural gas deposits contain up to 42% hydrogen sulfide (2). In industry, hydrogen sulfide can be formed whenever elemental sulfur or sulfur-containing compounds come into contact with organic materials at high temperatures. Hydrogen sulfide is formed, for instance, during coke production, in viscose rayon production, in waste-water treatment plants, in wood pulp production using the sulfate method, in sulfur extraction processes, in oil refining and in the tanning industry. In Canada, in 1978, the kraft pulping industry was estimated to be responsible for 97% of the country’s total anthropogenic hydrogen sulfide emissions (3). However, only 10% of the total global emissions of this compound are of anthropogenic origin.

Occurrence in air
In one report (2), the average ambient air hydrogen sulfide level was estimated to be 0.3 μg/m (0.0002 ppm). In north-west London, over a period of 2.5 years, air levels of hydrogen sulfide were generally below 0.15 μg/m (0.0001 ppm) under clear conditions (2). In and around the city of Rotorua, New Zealand, where there is geothermal activity, there is usually a sufficient hydrogen sulfide concentration to cause odours. During continuous monitoring in Rotorua a hydrogen sulfide concentration of 0.08 mg/m (0.05 ppm) was exceeded more than 55% of the time in the mid-winter months (2). Rather high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide have been measured near point sources. Near a pulp and paper-mill in California, peak concentrations of up to 0.20 mg/m (0.13 ppm) were measured (2). In a Finnish town with two sulfate pulp mills (annual emissions of 1993 tonnes and 794 tonnes of hydrogen sulfide, respectively) concentrations of hydrogen sulfide near the mills were estimated, using the emission data and a dispersion model for the spread of gaseous sulfur compounds (4). The average annual concentrations were calculated to be up to 55 μg/m, monthly average concentrations up to 100 μg/m , 24-hour concentrations up to 540 μg/m, and 1-hour concentrations up to 1600 μg/m.

In another Finnish town, hydrogen sulfide concentrations near a viscose rayon mill were partly measured and partly estimated by using a dispersion model (5). When the smokestack of the mill was only 55 m high, the average annual concentrations exceeded 10 μg/m, 24-hour concentrations were approximately 200 μg/m and short-term concentrations were up to 450 μg/m. When a higher smokestack was installed the annual concentrations were reduced to 4 μg/m, 24-hour concentrations to 35 μg/m and 1-hour concentrations to a maximum of 80 μg/m.
During accidental exposures, concentrations from 150 mg/m (100 ppm) to 18 000 mg/m (12 000 ppm) have been reported (2). In a Finnish study (6), a health survey for hydrogen sulfide and other sulfides was carried out at six kraft mills. The hydrogen sulfide concentrations varied from less than 0.075 mg/m (0.05 ppm) to 30 mg/m (20 ppm), the highest concentrations being found near vacuum pumps. A Japanese study in 18 viscose rayon plants showed occupational exposure levels of hydrogen sulfide ranging from 0.45 to 11.7 mg/m (0.3-7.8 ppm), with a mean of 4.5 mg/m (3 ppm) (7).

Hydrogen sulfide is the main toxic substance involved in livestock rearing systems with liquid manure storage (8). It is also a hazard at waste treatment facilities.

Conversion factors
1 ppm = 1.5 mg/m
1 mg/m = 0.670 ppm


Continued...




posted on Feb, 26 2015 @ 07:42 PM
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Effects on humans
In its acute form, hydrogen sulfide intoxication is mainly the result of action on the nervous system. At concentrations of 15 mg/m and above, hydrogen sulfide causes conjunctival irritation, because sulfide and hydrogen sulfide anions are strong bases (11). Hydrogen sulfide affects the sensory nerves in the conjunctivae, so that pain is diminished rapidly and the tissue damage is greater (11). Serious eye damage is caused by a concentration of 70 mg/m . At higher concentrations (above 225 mg/m , or 150 ppm), hydrogen sulfide has a paralyzing effect on the olfactory perception (2), so that the odour can no longer be recognized as a warning signal. At higher concentrations, respiratory irritation is the predominant symptom, and at a concentration of around 400 mg/m there is a risk of pulmonary edema. At even higher concentrations there is strong stimulation of the central nervous system (CNS) (2), with hyperpnoea leading to apnoea, convulsions, unconsciousness, and death. At concentrations of over 1400 mg/m there is immediate collapse. In fatal human intoxication cases, brain edema, degeneration and necrosis of the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia have been observed (11).

If respiration can be maintained, the prognosis in a case of acute hydrogen sulfide intoxication, even a severe one, is fairly good. There are reports of neurasthenic symptoms after severe acute intoxication, such as amnesia, fatigue, dizziness, headache, irritability, and lack of initiative (11). A decrease of delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydrase (ALAD) synthase and haem synthase activity in reticulocytes one week after hydrogen sulfide intoxication has been reported (12), together with low levels of erythrocyte protoporphyrin. The ALAD and haem synthase activities returned to normal two months after the accident, erythrocyte protoporphyrin remaining low. Changes in the electrocardiogram have been reported after acute hydrogen sulfide intoxication, these changes being reversible (11). No tolerance to the acute effects of hydrogen sulfide has been reported to develop (11).

The mortality in acute hydrogen sulfide intoxications seems to be lower than that reported in 1977; according to a recent Canadian report it is now 2.8% (13), whereas formerly it was 6% (2). This may be a result of improved first-aid procedures and increased awareness of the dangers of hydrogen sulfide.

Information about longer-term exposures to hydrogen sulfide is scanty. Eighty-one Finnish pulp mill workers who were exposed to hydrogen sulfide concentrations of less than 30 mg/m (20 ppm) and to methyl mercaptan concentrations of less than 29.6 mg/m (15 ppm), displayed loss of concentration capacity and chronic or recurrent headache more often than a nonexposed control group of 81 workers. Restlessness and lack of vigour also appeared more often, but the findings were not statistically significant. There was also a tendency towards more frequent sick leave among the exposed group (6). One report cites decreased activity of haem synthesizing enzymes in reticulocytes of pulp mill workers exposed for years to organic and inorganic sulfides, with hydrogen sulfide concentrations of between 0.075 mg/m and 7.8 mg/m (12). No information is available as to whether the observed effect was related to peak concentrations or average concentrations. It can, however, be assumed that average exposure was considerably higher than 0.075 mg/m (around 1.5-3 mg/m).

Furthermore, there is no firm proof that hydrogen sulfide was the causative agent, as there may be confounding factors (other substances).

Epidemiological data concerning longer-term exposures are limited. Seventy per cent of workers exposed to hydrogen sulfide daily, often at 30 mg/m or more, complained of such symptoms as fatigue, somnolence, headache, irritability, poor memory, anxiety, dizziness, and eye irritation (14). In a Finnish mortality study workers in a sulfate pulp mill showed excess mortality from cardiovascular diseases (standardized mortality rate 140), and especially from heart infarction (standardized mortality rate 142). The findings were statistically significant. In the same study population, cancer incidence was not significantly different from, that of the general Finnish population (15).

Sensory effects
Hydrogen sulfide is an odorant, which in pure form has an odour detection threshold of 0.2-2.0 μg/m depending on the purity (16,17). Its characteristic smell of rotten eggs appears at concentrations 3-4 times higher than the odour threshold (18). In practical situations, such as in the effluents of Kraft pulp mills, hydrogen sulfide is accompanied by other odorous substances, such as methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl monosulfide, and, in the case of effluents of the viscose industry, by carbon disulfide. The odour quality of these emissions changes with the specific composition of the mixtures (19).

Hydrogen sulfide causes odour nuisance at concentrations far below those that cause health hazards. On the basis of the scientific literature, it is not possible to state a specific concentration of hydrogen sulfide at which odour nuisance starts to appear. Half-hour average concentrations exceeding 7 μg/m are likely to produce substantial complaints among persons exposed (19,20). A reduction in the concentration of hydrogen sulfide does not guarantee a substantial reduction of the odour nuisance, since hydrogen sulfide in many effluents provides only a small contribution to the odour strength of the total effluent (21). Moreover, the interaction between hydrogen sulfide and other odorous components in the effluent cannot explain the odour strength of the total effluents from pulp mills (21). Better short-term studies are required to elucidate the relationship between actual concentrations and reports of odour nuisance.


Hydrogen sulfide is heavier than air so it tends to pool at lower elevations. If winds are calm you can expect it to pool and sit at those lower spots but higher air currents may cause the plumes to drift. You may be exposed to the gas through these drifting or pooling plumes by breathing it or skin contact. You may also be exposed through drinking or eating the gas. The severity of the exposure of course, depends on the level of gas you come in contact with. Will you be harmed? That depends on the dose of exposure, how long you were exposed, and how you were exposed. Other factors also come into play, such as your age, sex, diet, family traits, lifestyle and overall health.

Hydrogen sulfide is a chemical asphyxiant like carbon monoxide and has many symptoms on humans. Over the long term if someone is exposed they may eventually get bronchitis or edema because the gas limits the absorption of oxygen and restricts cellular respiration. When a person exposed to the gas inhales it, the gas forms stable compounds with blood and eventually reduces the capacity to carry oxygen through the blood, which then causes respiratory problems.

At 0-10ppm : Irritation of throat, eyes and nose leading to watery eyes and nose. At 10-50ppm: causes headaches, dizziness and nausea. At 50-220ppm: Respiratory tract can get irritated, convulsions, can be fatal in severe cases.

Hydrogen sulfide usually decomposes in the air completely after about three or four days but this depends on the air currents carrying the gas.

Continued...



posted on Feb, 26 2015 @ 07:42 PM
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The rotten egg smell is the most common way to know you are in contact with hydrogen sulfide. You can detect the smell at very low levels, which usually means the dose you are being exposed to may be at a safe level. It’s when your olfactory senses become de-sensitized to the gas and you can no longer smell it that the dose may be high enough to cause harm. Usually at 100 ppm the gas wrecks your ability to smell it and then you won’t have an early warning system to alert you to higher more lethal doses of the gas.



posted on Feb, 26 2015 @ 07:53 PM
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I should hopefully get the book in the mail tomorrow, I'm still somewhat of an optimistic person. I would really like to catch up with your posting and be able to "know" what's coming the next day. But this is all quite a bit to take in, I have enjoyed every bit of it...not the subject matter, the presentation.



posted on Feb, 26 2015 @ 07:53 PM
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a reply to: Rezlooper

If gaseous hydrogen sulfide is put into contact with concentrated nitric acid, it explodes.



posted on Feb, 26 2015 @ 07:54 PM
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Ya know, I had noticed you seemed pro GW, now I know why, your writing a book!



posted on Feb, 26 2015 @ 08:01 PM
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a reply to: wasaka

It also can ignite from other sources, such as electrified copper, or any copper for that matter.



posted on Feb, 26 2015 @ 08:02 PM
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originally posted by: VoidHawk
Ya know, I had noticed you seemed pro GW, now I know why, your writing a book!


Seemed pro GW? Geez, after two and half years of these threads, you just realized that. Actually, I already wrote the book and now I'm giving it away for free as a special deal for all my ATS friends, you included.



posted on Feb, 26 2015 @ 08:11 PM
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originally posted by: DuckforcoveR
I should hopefully get the book in the mail tomorrow, I'm still somewhat of an optimistic person. I would really like to catch up with your posting and be able to "know" what's coming the next day. But this is all quite a bit to take in, I have enjoyed every bit of it...not the subject matter, the presentation.


Thanks for getting the book. This is a fun way to give away the book because I can interact with people as I post each chapter. I wouldn't give it away any other way than to publish the pages here at ATS, because, like I said earlier, much of the content of this book came from many threads here at ATS.

I'm not real thrilled about the subject matter either. Here is a blog I wrote back in September a few weeks after publishing the book. Here is a link to my blog page where its at.

Not the topic I wanted for my first book



I’ve always wanted to write a book. Ever since I can remember I was writing short stories or poetry. In my younger years I began a few attempts at scrawling novels only to get about 20 pages in and watch the flame slowly dwindle. The passion I felt at the beginning of the book when I had a vision of the entire story would simply disappear. It was frustrating. I figured it out eventually, I didn’t have patience. My mind would drift off to other projects.

My life rolled along and many other ventures would ensue, but that longing to write a novel would persist, always there at the back of my mind. And finally, at the age of 42, I found the passion within to finish writing my first book. The entire episode in my life took nearly two years, a mammoth project indeed.

There was only one problem. It certainly isn't the type of book I ever expected to write, and I mean that on so many levels. For one, climate change was the last thing on my mind until two years ago when I was doing some research on what was causing some loud booms in Clintonville, Wis., a town just down the road from me. I found the Jumping Jack Flash Hypothesis, a scary idea that methane and hydrogen sulfide gases were pluming into the atmosphere and causing unexplained explosions and mysterious fires all over the planet.

That scary notion is what leads to the second reason why it wasn’t the type of book I expected to write. I wish so badly that it was on a different topic, a much more pleasant and inspiring topic. I wish it was on a topic that would bring smiles to people’s faces. But, unfortunately, that isn’t the case here. My first book became a massive project delivering an important message that we, mankind, may be on the cusp of an extinction level event.

Fever Rising

Fever Rising is a book about the dangerous gases, methane and hydrogen sulfide, and how they are pluming into the atmosphere from many sources all over the planet, and these levels of gases are increasing as we speak. Methane gas is creating a blanket over the planet, trapping in the sun’s heat at 25 times more potency than carbon dioxide.

While discussing my book, I was asked today by a mother of a young daughter what I thought about the future for her child. It was a sobering question, but not something I haven’t put many hours of thought into myself. You see, my wife and I have been together for over 20 years but it was just five years ago that we started adding little rug rats to the household. We have three children now and are expecting a fourth next month. So, yes, my biggest concern about the future isn't myself, but for my children and what will happen to them.

Knowing what I know now after two years of research, do I hold any hope at all for them? Absolutely, I hold hope that mankind can and will survive, and my children will definitely be among them. That is one of the reasons why I so diligently study this theory. Will life change as we know it if the gases continue to rise at the levels they are? Yes, I believe it will and there is a great chance that humans won’t survive it at all. But, I believe some will survive.

I believe we can all survive if we’d just come together and stop arguing about carbon taxes, or who is to blame, and focus our energies on massive mitigation efforts that our governments and corporations can undertake. A worldwide collaborative effort is now the only way that we could possibly stop what may already be a runaway freight train.



posted on Feb, 26 2015 @ 09:11 PM
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originally posted by: wasaka
a reply to: Rezlooper

If gaseous hydrogen sulfide is put into contact with concentrated nitric acid, it explodes.



Isn't hydrogen sulfide what the guys on Oak Island died from?



posted on Feb, 26 2015 @ 09:38 PM
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a reply to: greencmp

That would make sense. H2S could easily seep into the lower depths of that hole and pool there waiting for these guys. At concentrations over 100 ppm it starts to get very dangerous and when it pools in the bottom of a cavern like this, it would certainly be concentrated enough to kill instantly.



posted on Feb, 26 2015 @ 10:58 PM
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I should read your book. I already knew the effects of hydrogen sulfide and methane on the cellular level. Also, low levels of occasional Hydrogen sulfide are possibly beneficial to us. In other words smelling a fart can sometimes be beneficial. Now constantly being even in low levels is not good.

S&F. Sounds like a pretty good book.



posted on Feb, 27 2015 @ 01:39 AM
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off-topic post removed to prevent thread-drift


 



posted on Feb, 27 2015 @ 04:34 AM
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I am wondering if you have been endorsed by the overlords of this site to sell commercial products. just curious.
regards fakedirt.

a reply to: kamagra4uk



posted on Feb, 27 2015 @ 07:54 AM
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originally posted by: fakedirt
I am wondering if you have been endorsed by the overlords of this site to sell commercial products. just curious.
regards fakedirt.

a reply to: kamagra4uk



And what commercial products would I be selling? I have no endorsements, fakedirt. I'm just a guy with a passion to tell the world about something I believe in.



posted on Feb, 27 2015 @ 07:59 AM
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originally posted by: rickymouse
I should read your book. I already knew the effects of hydrogen sulfide and methane on the cellular level. Also, low levels of occasional Hydrogen sulfide are possibly beneficial to us. In other words smelling a fart can sometimes be beneficial. Now constantly being even in low levels is not good.

S&F. Sounds like a pretty good book.


I've been reading about that to Rickymouse, about studies showing that very low levels of H2S within our bodies is actually good for us

H2S produced within the body

The thing is that this is the H2S that our own bodies produce within, so a very low level.



posted on Feb, 27 2015 @ 08:40 AM
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hello rezlooper
I am afraid you have misunderstood the post. it was directed at kamagra4uk.

I read your thread and found it splendid by the way . flagged and starred before initial comment.
a reply to: Rezlooper




posted on Feb, 27 2015 @ 09:23 AM
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a reply to: fakedirt

Ok, now I get it, lol. Sorry bout that one.



posted on Feb, 27 2015 @ 10:27 AM
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originally posted by: kamagra4uk
a reply to: rickymouse


Hydrogen sulfide is a colorless gas with the characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs; it is heavier than air, very poisonous, corrosive, flammable, and explosive. so, get to know & beware from hydrogen sulfide kamagra.


They just discovered that very low levels of H2S occasionally has a beneficial effect on the arteries. It was actually on Dr. Oz that I first saw this and I looked it up and it was true. I didn't study the particulars of it but just noted a little natural amounts of this doesn't hurt a person. We don't have to leave the room immediately when someone farts.



posted on Feb, 27 2015 @ 06:42 PM
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originally posted by: rickymouse
I should read your book. I already knew the effects of hydrogen sulfide and methane on the cellular level. Also, low levels of occasional Hydrogen sulfide are possibly beneficial to us. In other words smelling a fart can sometimes be beneficial. Now constantly being even in low levels is not good.

S&F. Sounds like a pretty good book.

Ricky, you are reading his book :-)

S&F to the OP for this chapter.

Regards, Iwinder




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