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THE BYZANTINE PERIOD
North Africa held an important place in the emperor Justinian’s scheme for reuniting the Roman Empire and destroying the Germanic kingdoms. His invasion of Africa was undertaken against the advice of his experts (an earlier attempt in 468 had failed disastrously), but his general Belisarius succeeded, partly through Vandal incompetence. He landed in 533 with only 16,000 men, and within a year the Vandal kingdom was destroyed. A new administrative structure was introduced, headed by a praetorian prefect with six subordinate governors for civil matters and a master of soldiers with four subordinate generals.
Three Nubian kingdoms arose on the ruins of Meroitic power and are first known to history from the accounts of sixth century missionary ACTIVITY given by the Syrian writer John of Ephesus. In the north, from the First to the Third Cataracts, was the kingdom of Nobatia, with its capital at Faras; south of it and stretching as far as the place known to Arab writers as El Abwab, ‘the doors’, thought to be near the modern village of Kabushia, was Makuria, with its capital at Old Dongola; and further south again, the kingdom of Alwah (or Alodia), whose capital, Soba, is close to Khartoum.
During all this time (after the christianization of Nobatia in the 5th century) these remote kingdoms on the Middle Nile were cut off from the rest of the Christian world by the Muslim occupation of Egypt (640-'42). Yet they were strong enough to resist Muslim encroachment and even to threaten Muslim positions in Egypt, making a treaty with the Caliph of Baghdad and occupying southern Egypt in 962. Not until 1173 did there come the first big Muslim raid by Saracen cavalry from the north. A startling panorama of the wealth and distinction of their religious life was revealed in 1961-‘64 by Polish excavations at Faras under the leadership of Kazimierz
Makuria was one of the few states in the world to repulse Muslim invasions led by the Rashidun Caliphate when they defeated an Arab army at the First Battle of Dongola in 642. The Arabs had taken Egypt in 641, and the jihad soon turned south. Makuria repeated the feat in 652 at the Second Battle of Dongola. Arab writers noted the Makurians' skill as archers in both battles. One of the few major defeats suffered by an Arab army in the first century of Islamic expansion, it led to an unprecedented agreement: the bakt. This treaty guaranteed peaceful relations between the two sides. The Nubians agreed to give Arab traders more privileges of trade in addition to a share in their slave trading, while the Egyptians may have been obliged to send manufactured goods south.
Makuria seems to have been stable and prosperous during the 8th and 9th centuries. During this period Egypt was weakened by frequent civil wars, and there was thus little threat of invasion from the north. Instead it was the Nubians who intervened in the affairs of their neighbor. Much of Upper Egypt was still Christian, and it looked to the Nubian kingdoms for protection. One report has a Nubian army sacking Cairo in the 8th century to defend the Christians
Near East in 700 AD, showing Makuria and its neighbors
At some point Makuria merged with Nobatia to the north
And [the Queen] returned and encamped in the city of ZION, and they remained therein three months, then their wagons moved on and came to the city of the p. 166 Government. And in one day they came to the city of SÂBÂ, and they laid waste NÔBÂ; and from there they camped round about SÂBÂ, and they laid it waste as far as the border of EGYPT. And the majesty (or, awe) of the King of ETHIOPIA was so great that the King of MĔDYÂM and the King of EGYPT caused gifts to be brought unto him, and they came into the city of the Government, and from there they encamped in ’AB‛ÂT, and they waged war on the country of INDIA, and the King of INDIA brought a gift and a present (or, tribute), and himself did homage to the King of ETHIOPIA. He (i.e., DAVID) waged war wheresoever he pleased; no man conquered him, on the contrary, whosoever attacked him was conquered. www.abovetopsecret.com...
The sudden appearance and disappearance of Aksumite coins in the Indian Ocean region in the late third century remains an enigmatic clue to a dynamic phase of international trade and diplomacy. This study will explore how the Aksumite kingdom of Ethiopia used imitation of Byzantine coins as part of its strategy to usurp the role of the eastern Roman Empire in long-distance trade with the East. These coins demonstrate a flourishing and self-confident polity, but also illustrate the importance of cultural tradition in the pursuit of maritime trade
originally posted by: Spider879
Axumite castle late medieval era
Rock Hewn Churches at Lalibela ,created by Gebre Mesqel Lalibela of the Zagwe dynast 12th century 11 of these churches were built.
Gebre Mesqel spent time in Jerusalem as a royal fugitive where the Axumites had their own Church where their pilgrims could visit , apparently their fortunes changed when Saladin captured Jerusalem and the Greek Orthodox with whom they had a running argument with was evicted in favor of that body,they were thus reduced to settle for a small chapel atop of the Church,when Lalibela return to Axum and assumed the role of emperor he sought to build a new Jerusalem in his own country thus creating these wonderful works.
Ethiopian Church in Jeruselam
Ethiopian or Axumite Version of the story of Soloman and Sheba to which the last Dynasty claimed a blood tie, that tradition is currently promoted by the Rastafarians
I could go into the Christian Kingdom of The Kongo, but I'll shelved that for another time and thread.
In conclusion Africans were no strangers to any of the three Abrahamic religions, they had participated it their formation as individuals and nations, I could argue the point that the Abrahamic traditions drank deeply from the well of African traditional religions, but that's not the point of this thread..hope you guys enjoyed.
originally posted by: onequestion
a reply to: Spider879
I read somewhere recently that the original Jews were black..
How true is that?
Not that it really matters topically but when it comes down to usurping a religion and claiming it as your own with the lineage to support whats very important to the jewish population, which is lineage.
originally posted by: punkinworks10
a reply to: Spider879
This doesn't specifically have to do with this thread, but I am sure you will find it informational,
Ancient North African cattle
The paper talks about the link between African languages and the domestication of cattle..