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originally posted by: SlapMonkey
a reply to: ManFromEurope
Actually, here in the US, the percentage of people who have contracted and died from measels from 2000-2012 is at less than 0.02%. That equates to .2/10,000, or 1/50,000. Since then, the rate of death in those who have contracted measels is, for all statistical purposes, is 0.00000%.
Methylmercury is commonly found in fresh or salt water fish as a result of bioaccumulation (increasing concentrations in tissues over time). Methylmercury occurs in varying amounts depending on the type of fish, with higher concentrations of methylmercury typically found in larger fish that are higher up on the food chain, particularly shark, swordfish, and tilefish (1)
Mercury Exposure and Children’s Health
Stephan Bose-O’Reilly, MD, MPH,a Kathleen M. McCarty, ScD, MPH,b Nadine Steckling, BSc,a and Beate Lettmeier, PhD
a Institute of Public Health, Medical Decision Making and Health Technology Assessment, Department of Public Health, Information Systems and Health Technology Assessment, UMIT—University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, Hall i.T, Austria
b Yale School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, CT.
Acute or chronic mercury exposure can cause adverse effects during any period of development. Mercury is a highly toxic element; there is no known safe level of exposure. Ideally, neither children nor adults should have any mercury in their bodies because it provides no physiological benefit. Prenatal and postnatal mercury exposures occur frequently in many different ways. Pediatricians, nurses, and other health care providers should understand the scope of mercury exposures and health problems among children and be prepared to handle mercury exposures in medical practice. Prevention is the key to reducing mercury poisoning. Mercury exists in different chemical forms: elemental (or metallic), inorganic, and organic (methylmercury and ethyl mercury). Mercury exposure can cause acute and chronic intoxication at low levels of exposure. Mercury is neuro-, nephro-, and immunotoxic.
Thimerosal and Animal Brains: New Data for Assessing Human Ethylmercury Risk
Julia R. Barrett
Additional article information
Because of the lack of pharmacokinetic and toxicity data for ethylmercury, methylmercury has been used as a reference for ethylmercury toxicity based on the assumption that the two compounds share similar toxicokinetic profiles. However, a new animal study shows that methylmercury is an inadequate reference for ethylmercury due to significant differences in tissue distribution, clearance rates, and ratios of organic to inorganic mercury in the brain [EHP 113:1015–1021].
During their first two years, children in the United States may receive more than 20 routine vaccinations. The rise in childhood autism has sparked concerns that thimerosal-derived ethylmercury may be at least partly to blame for some of these cases—concerns that are largely driven by awareness of methylmercury’s neurotoxicity.
In the current study, researchers assigned 41 newborn monkeys to one of three exposure groups. Seventeen of the monkeys were injected with vaccines spiked with thimerosal for a total mercury dose of 20 micrograms per kilogram (μg/kg) at ages 0, 7, 14, and 21 days, mimicking the typical schedule of vaccines for human infants. At the same ages, another 17 monkeys received 20 μg/kg methylmercury by stomach tube to mimic typical methylmercury exposure. A third group of 7 monkeys served as unexposed controls.
At concentrations found in vaccines, thimerosal meets the requirements for a preservative as set forth by the United States Pharmacopeia; that is, it kills the specified challenge organisms and is able to prevent the growth of the challenge fungi (U.S. Pharmacopeia 2004). Thimerosal in concentrations of 0.001% (1 part in 100,000) to 0.01% (1 part in 10,000) has been shown to be effective in clearing a broad spectrum of pathogens. A vaccine containing 0.01% thimerosal as a preservative contains 50 micrograms of thimerosal per 0.5 mL dose or approximately 25 micrograms of mercury per 0.5 mL dose.
Brain concentrations of total mercury were approximately 3–4 times lower in the thimerosal group than in the methylmercury group, and total mercury cleared more rapidly in the thimerosal group (with a half-life of 24.2 days versus 59.5 days). However, the proportion of inorganic mercury in the brain was much higher in the thimerosal group (21–86% of total mercury) compared to the methylmercury group (6–10%). Brain concentrations of inorganic mercury were approximately twice as high in the thimerosal group compared to the methylmercury group. Inorganic mercury remains in the brain much longer than organic mercury, with an estimated half-life of more than a year. It’s not currently known whether inorganic mercury presents any risk to the developing brain.
Given these findings, the researchers caution that risk assessments for thimerosal based on studies using blood mercury measurements may not be valid, depending on the design of the study. Further, the observed differences in distribution and breakdown of mercury compounds between exposed groups indicate that methylmercury is not a suitable model for thimerosal toxicity.
The researchers emphasize, however, that the risks associated with low-level exposures to inorganic mercury in the developing brain are unknown, and they describe other research linking persistent inorganic mercury exposure with increased activation of microglia in the brain, an effect recently reported in children with autism. They recommend further research focused specifically on the biotransformation of thimerosal and its neurotoxic potential.
originally posted by: MysterX
a reply to: ElectricUniverse
The answer is simple. Wakenfield has been made into a scapegoat, an excuse to dismiss the "vaccine controversy", and the NLBS people of ATS fell for it.
Most people don't realise that Dr. Andrew Wakefield (not Wakenfield), way back in the late 90's wasn't actually jumping up and down screaming about an identified link between certain vaccinations and resultant, sometimes immediate neurological disorders materialising in some of the children who received them.
He was actually trying to highlight and get some official attention and research into POSSIBLE links..here was a Dr. who true to his Hippocratic oath which included 'DO NO HARM', who thought it important the medical establishment ought to be made aware of a POSSIBLE link and act on that information in a way that would benefit patients.
They acted on that information all right...only problem was, they acting in a way that was geared up to protecting the pharmaceutical industry and not the patients, and Wakefield became the sacrificial lamb to be slaughtered on the altar of pharma profits and the medical establishment.
Wakefield was doing his job as a Doctor, and lost everything including his professional reputation as a result of it.... although in my view, by speaking out about a possible damaging link to kids resulting from the MMR vaccine...i think he's shown he is more caring and Humanitarian, exactly what his oath as a Doctor demanded of him incidentally, than any of the bastards who crucified him for it.
originally posted by: ElectricUniverse
Another fact that wasn't presented is that there have been outbreaks of Mumps, and other diseases which have occurred and the mayority of people who contracted these diseases were up to date on their vaccinations.
Case on point.
Mumps Outbreaks in Canada and the United States: Time for New Thinking on Mumps Vaccines
Prasad S. Kulkarni2,
Subhash V. Kapre2,
Suresh S. Jadhav2, and
Rajeev M. Dhere2
1HUCH Hospital, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Finland
2Serum Institute of India, Pune, India
3World Bank, Washington DC
Reprints or correspondence: Dr. H. Peltola, HUCH Hospital, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, PO Box 281 (11 Stenbãck St.), 00029 HUS Helsinki, Finland (heikki.peltola[at]hus.fi).
Mumps epidemics in Canada and the United States prompted us to review evidence for the effectiveness of 5 different vaccine strains. Early trials with the Jeryl Lynn vaccine strain demonstrated an efficacy of ∼95%, but in epidemic conditions, the effectiveness has been as low as 62%; this is still considerably better than the effectiveness of another safe strain, Rubini (which has an effectiveness of close to 0% in epidemic conditions). The Urabe vaccine strain has an effectiveness of 54%–87% but is prone to cause aseptic meningitis. Little epidemiological information is available for other vaccines. The Leningrad-Zagreb vaccine strain, which is widely used in developing countries and costs a fraction of what vaccines cost in the developed world, seems to have encouraging results; in 1 study, the effectiveness of this vaccine exceeded 95%. Aseptic meningitis has also been reported in association with this vaccine, but the benign nature of the associated meningitis was shown recently in Croatia. Also, the Leningrad-3 strain seems to be effective but causes less-benign meningitis. No mumps vaccine equals the best vaccines in quality, but the virtually complete safety of some strains may not offset their low effectiveness. Epidemiological data are pivotal in mumps, because serological testing is subject to many interpretation problems.
Among 363 male patients in Iowa, 27 (8%) had cases of orchitis, and of 1254 patients involved in the epidemic, 4 (0.3%) developed encephalitis . Several cases of meningitis, deafness, oophoritis, mastitis, and pancreatitis have been diagnosed in patients involved in the outbreaks. Because the manifestations and severity of disease in vaccinees do not much differ from those found in nonvaccinated populations [7, 8], vaccinees with disease have not gained much from vaccination. Among 1798 patients in the United States, only 123 (7%) were unvaccinated, 245 (14%) had received 1 dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, and 884 (49%) were vaccinated twice . In the first outbreak in Canada, 9 (69%) of 13 teenagers had received 2 doses of MMR vaccine . There remains little room for discussion as to whether most cases involve vaccine failure; they do.
The same can happen with Measles, and other diseases. Not to mention the mutations that can incur in these viruses in just one year, not to mention several years.
So the claim that the measles outbreak was because "anti-vaxxers" could be for all intent and purposes false, since other outbreaks have occurred and the mayority of people were vaccinated against that virus yet they got sick.
originally posted by: and14263
a reply to: Pardon?
Where you posting from buddy?
I've not seen you about much so I looked at your previous posts - there are none and when I look at your join date....
The '?' is missing from your profile posts page too.
You a glitch or a shill?
If you’ve ever had the date on a mobile phone, iPod, or computer software mysteriously switch to December 31, 1969, you may have thought it was simply random. However, the reason behind this odd glitch is a nice little tidbit of computer trivia.
Unix is a computer operating system that, in one form or another, is used on most servers, workstations, and mobile devices. It was launched in November 1971 and, after some teething problems, the “epoch date” was set to the beginning of the decade, January 1, 1970. What this means is that time began for Unix at midnight on January 1, 1970 GMT. Time measurement units are counted from the epoch so that the date and time of events can be specified without question. If a time stamp is somehow reset to 0, the clock will display January 1, 1970.
So where does December 31 fit in? It’s because you live in the Western Hemisphere. When it’s midnight in Greenwich, England, it’s still December 31st in America, where users will see December 31, 1969 - the day before Unix’s epoch.