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Nicotine's primary metabolite supports learning and memory by amplifying the action of a primary chemical messenger involved in both, researchers report. "This is the first hint of what the mechanism of the metabolite cotinine might be," said Alvin Terry, Chairman of the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology at the Medical College of Georgia at Georgia Regents Univ. and corresponding author of the study in the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
The new findings indicate cotinine makes brain receptors more sensitive to lower levels of the messenger acetylcholine, which are typical in Alzheimer's, and may boost effectiveness, at least for a time, of existing therapies for Alzheimer's and possibly other memory and psychiatric disorders. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is produced by cholinergic neurons, a target in diseases such as Alzheimer's. The first sign of damage is these brain cells start pulling back the axons that connect them, then they die, Terry said. Most Alzheimer's drugs, including the widely used Aricept, or donepezil, help patients maintain higher levels of acetylcholine longer by blocking an enzyme that breaks it down. "This could be an extra boost," Terry said.
Cotinine was also helpful in some models that predict antipsychotic behavior, called prepulse inhibition. Patients with Alzheimer's as well as psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia may have trouble controlling themselves on many different levels. "One of the things that gets people put in a nursing home very commonly is psychiatric outbursts," Terry said. "As your brain degenerates, Alzheimer's is not just a disease of cognition. Some patients hallucinate, some have delusions, as well as aggressive behavior sometimes," Terry said.
The top five health benefits of vitamin B3 are as follows: The primary health benefit of vitamin B3 is a significant decrease in heart disease. It helps lower the level of bad cholesterol. Studies have shown that a key health benefit of vitamin B3 is the elevation of good (HDL) cholesterol levels. However, sufficient quantities of the vitamin must be ingested for the required benefits. Other health benefits of vitamin B3 include a reduction in the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, cataracts, osteoarthritis, and type-1 diabetes. Scientific studies have shown that vitamin B3 assists in the energy production of cells. It is beneficial for a healthy nervous system and a well-functioning digestive system. The minimum amount of vitamin B3 required for healthy living varies with age. Children require 2-16 mg of vitamin B3, while pregnant women require 18 mg of the vitamin.
Nicotine is a toxic compound that should be handled with care, but the frequent warnings of potential fatalities caused by ingestion of small amounts of tobacco products or diluted nicotine-containing solutions are unjustified and need to be revised in light of overwhelming data indicating that more than 0.5 g of oral nicotine is required to kill an adult.
originally posted by: TiredofControlFreaks
a reply to: Krazysh0t
And when I am dying of lung cancer, you will be forgetting your name!
Nothing is one hundred percent "safe. Everything has risks. Even not smoking has obvious risks.
Like I said before.....I would rather die a relatively quick death by lung cancer than to linger for years drooling into my diapers.
This is now scientific proof and people should know what the benefits of smoking are!
Tired of Control Freaks