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he minimum dose of nicotinic acid found to be curative of blacktongue was 0.2 mg. per kilogram of body weight. Since there was total loss of appetite during the curative process, the effect can be attributed solely to the pure nicotinic acid which was being administered, and not even partially to the supplementary effect of residual vitamin factors in the diet. The results with this dose level, however, were insufficient for prompt cure and return to normal weight. The lowest dose found to accomplish this was 0.5 mg. per kilogram. Subse quent dosages of 1.0 mg., 1.5 mg. and 10 mg. gave similar re sults. There was no evidence of toxicity even with the 10 mg.
originally posted by: TiredofControlFreaks
Smoking is an important risk factor for the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (Aubry and MacGibbon, 1985;Karagas et al, 1992;Grodstein et al, 1995;De Hertog et al, 2001). Smoking (Kadunce et al, 1991;Davis and Koh, 1992;Ernster et al, 1995;Smith and Fenske, 1996;Demierre et al, 1999) and solar ultraviolet radiation (Fisher et al, 1997) are known to have a detrimental effect on human skin, which causes the skin to appear older. Important characteristics of skin aging are elastosis and telangiectasia (Calderone and Fenske, 1995). Other manifestations of skin aging are wrinkling, coarseness, laxity, atrophy, irregular pigmentation, and dryness (Calderone and Fenske, 1995). Skin aging is strongly associated with squamous cell carcinoma (Green et al, 1988;Green and Battistutta, 1990;Kricker et al, 1991).
Tobacco smoking has varying effects on the skin (Smith and Fenske, 1996). Smokers have enhanced facial aging and skin wrinkling compared with nonsmokers (Daniell, 1971;Kadunce et al, 1991;Davis and Koh, 1992;Grady and Ernster, 1992;Ernster et al, 1995;Smith and Fenske, 1996;Frances, 1998;Demierre et al, 1999). Smoking was found to be an independent risk factor for premature facial wrinkling even after controlling for sun exposure, age, sex, and skin pigmentation (Kadunce et al, 1991). There was a clear dose-response relationship, with facial wrinkling increasing in individuals who were smoking during longer periods and also with increasing number of cigarettes per day (Kadunce et al, 1991). Long-term exposure to solar radiation can lead to profound and structural changes in the skin (Calderone and Fenske, 1995), but smoking was shown to have an even greater effect on facial wrinkling than did sun exposure (Daniell, 1971). Some studies reported that women were more susceptible to the wrinkling effects of smoking (Ernster et al, 1995).
Smoking and ultraviolet radiation are known to have a detrimental effect on human skin. Important characteristics of the aging skin are elastosis and telangiectasia. The purpose of the study was to assess the relative importance of age per se, and the detrimental effects caused by sun exposure and smoking on the development of cutaneous elastosis and telangiectasia in a well-defined group of individuals. We made use of 966 individuals who participated in a case-control study to investigate environmental and genetic risk factors for skin cancer. Exposure measurements for sunlight and smoking were collected and the amount of elastosis and telangiectasia in the face and neck was recorded according to a four-graded score varying from none to severe. Relative risks were estimated using exposure odds ratios from cross-tabulation and logistic regression. Multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. Among both sexes a strong association was observed between increasing age, sun exposure, and amount of elastosis. The association between increasing age, sun exposure, and amount of telangiectasia was strong among men, but less apparent among women. Smoking was also associated with elastosis among both sexes, and with telangiectasia predominantly among men. Intrinsic differences between men and women (e.g., hormones) or behavior differences (e.g., more frequent use of creams and cosmetics among women) could account for this apparent difference in the occurrence of telangiectasia. In contrast to elastosis, telangiectasia may not be a good marker of the aging skin, specifically not in women.
Smoking and ultraviolet radiation are known to have a detrimental effect on human skin.
The purpose of the study was to assess the relative importance of age per se, and the detrimental effects caused by sun exposure and smoking on the development of cutaneous elastosis and telangiectasia in a well-defined group of individuals.
Among both sexes a strong association was observed between increasing age, sun exposure, and amount of elastosis. The association between increasing age, sun exposure, and amount of telangiectasia was strong among men, but less apparent among women.
Smoking was also associated with elastosis among both sexes, and with telangiectasia predominantly among men.
A confidence interval gives an estimated range of values which is likely to include an unknown population parameter, the estimated range being calculated from a given set of sample data. If independent samples are taken repeatedly from the same population, and a confidence interval calculated for each sample, then a certain percentage (confidence level) of the intervals will include the unknown population parameter. Confidence intervals are usually calculated so that this percentage is 95%, but we can produce 90%, 99%, 99.9% (or whatever) confidence intervals for the unknown parameter.
A very wide interval may indicate that more data should be collected before anything very definite can be said about the parameter. Confidence intervals are more informative than the simple results of hypothesis tests (where we decide "reject H0" or "don't reject H0") since they provide a range of plausible values for the unknown parameter.Text Confidence intervals are more informative than the simple results of hypothesis tests (where we decide "reject H0" or "don't reject H0") since they provide a range of plausible values for the unknown parameter.
Confidence interval (CI) The confidence interval indicates the level of uncertainty around the measure of effect (precision of the effect estimate) which in this case is expressed as an OR. Confidence intervals are used because a study recruits only a small sample of the overall population so by having an upper and lower confidence limit we can infer that the true population effect lies between these two points. Most studies report the 95% confidence interval (95%CI).
If the confidence interval crosses 1 e.g. 95%CI 0.9-1.1 this implies there is no difference between arms of the study.
To reach their findings, published in the journal Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, the researchers recruited 79 pairs of identical twins who attended the Twins Day Festival in Twinsburg, Ohio. Of these pairs, 57 were women and the average age for all pairs was 48.
One twin within each pair smoked, while the other had smoked for at least 5 years less, or did not smoke at all. The average difference in smoking history between the twins who both smoked was 13 years.
All twins were required to have professional photographs taken in close-up of their face, as well as complete questionnaires regarding their medical history and lifestyle.
In order to determine specific areas of facial aging that may be affected by smoking, judges who are specialized in monitoring the signs of aging analyzed the twins' facial features from the photographs without knowing details of their smoking history.
During this process, they analyzed the gradients of the twins' wrinkles and other facial features that may be affected by aging, including the presence of bags under the eyes and lower eyelid skin discoloration. Each type of wrinkle and age-related feature was given a score for its severity.
'Significant signs of aging' found in lower part of face
Findings revealed that twins who smoked had significantly higher scores on the majority of the measures for facial aging.
Smokers demonstrated more sagging of the upper eyelids and more bags of the lower eyelids and under the eyes. They also had higher scores for facial wrinkles, specifically wrinkling of the upper and lower lips, sagging jowls (lower part of the cheek), and more pronounced lines between the nose and mouth.
originally posted by: TiredofControlFreaks
For example: it is beyond dispute that there is an association between lung cancer and smoking. But identifying an association (correlation) is not at all the same thing as finding correlation.
Tired of Control Freaks
Keeping track of the number of new cases, deaths, and survival over time (trends) can help scientists understand whether progress is being made and where additional research is needed to address challenges, such as improving screening or finding better treatments.
Using statistical models for analysis, rates for new lung and bronchus cancer cases have been falling on average 1.5% each year over the last 10 years. Death rates have been falling on average 1.8% each year over 2002-2011. 5-year survival trends are shown below the figure.