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At the time of its carving, the shell likely had a dark covering, and the marks would have appeared as white lines, Joordens said. Her team tried to engrave present-day freshwater shells and found the task difficult. "You had to use a lot of strength in your hands," Joordens said. "You had to be precise to make those angles. [But] if you engrave that dark surface and the white appears, that must have been quite striking for Homo erectus."
originally posted by: theantediluvian
I'm really surprised that so many posters are having a hard time accepting these marks were created by homo erectus. Oldowan tools were in use from about 2.6 to 1.7 million years ago when the Acheulean toolkit shows up and there is evidence of controlled cooking fires in the Wonderwerk Cave in South Africa that date back more than a million years.
Many of the features that distinguish Homo erectus from other hominin species—both earlier and later species—are seen in the skull. The average brain size of Homo erectus is estimated to have been roughly 900 cubic centimeters (cc.), which is larger than Homo habilis, but smaller than that of Homo heidelbergensis and other later forms. The size of the Homo erectus brain is negligibly larger than in Homo habilis when it is considered as in relation to body size—i.e., brain size increased substantially in Homo erectus, but, because body size also increased, the relative size of the Homo erectus brain is not considerably larger than that of Homo habilis. The absolute in brain size, however, caused changes in the brain case; for instance, the braincase is higher than in Homo habilis, but lower than in later hominin species. The Homo erectus braincase is also very long relative to its height, giving the skull a football-shape when viewed from the side. The braincase and the face and jaws of Homo erectus were very heavily built, with thick bones and extreme thickenings along some of the skull sutures (where two skull bones connect). For instance, the browridges were massively built and continuous across the face and large, bony prominences existed in the back of the skull (the occipital torus and angular torus). Due to these prominences, the cranium of Homo erectus is pentagon-shaped when viewed from behind, with the widest area coinciding with the bottom of the cranium.
originally posted by: zandra
a reply to: theantediluvian
Sorry but I think homo erectus could have been a little bit smarter than a monkey now is. So it's not impossible he made this marks. But human consciousness as we know it came on this world as a big bang some 32.000 years ago.
I believe there was an alien race coming from a still unknown planet (unknown to us poor citizens) but from that alien race no one of us will ever find a trace (yes because there are mighty people that keep those traces away from us or that make us doubt until we are death meat).
But an alien race made the Homo sapiens sapiens some 32.000 years ago in the south of France. I believe.
www.evawaseerst.be... (see the red dots)
originally posted by: Kandinsky
a reply to: theantediluvian
Like Hans says, the object and scratches aren't enough to break out the party tinsel and definitively attribute them to deliberate actions.
The part I quoted about the scratches being emulated on a modern shell are indicative and still a skitch short of conclusive.
Some folk have wider issues with science in general and will baulk at just about anything that runs counter to Creationist ideology. Others doubt science despite the fact that they're using it to communicate their disapproval
originally posted by: Kandinsky
a reply to: Hanslune
They'll need to find more shells with scratches and they'd need to look more patterned and deliberate to get close to conclusive.
Exactly what the shell was used for is impossible to know. A previous study suggested that cut marks on ancient cow bones found on Java likely came from shell tools, which could have been used to butcher animals, cut plants or clean fish. Neanderthals, which lived about 200,000 to 40,000 years ago, also used shells as tools, though there’s evidence that they broke the shells and then sharpened them, notes Enza Spinapolice, an archaeologist at the Max Planck Institute in Germany.
The first houses were thought to be windbreaks made of animals skins stretched over a frame. There is evidence that Homo Erectus constructed 50-foot-long branch huts with stone slabs or animal skins for floors.
The oldest recognized buildings in the world are twelve 400,000-year-old huts found in Nice, France in 1960. Uncovered by an excavator preparing to build a new house, the oval shelters ranged from 26 feet to 49 feet in length and were between 13 feet and 20 feet wide. They were built of 3-inch in diameter stakes and braced by a ring of stones. Longer poles were set around the perimeter as supports. The huts had hearths and pebble-lined pits and were defined by stake holes.
Ancient humans thought to be Homo erectus that lived 350,000 years ago near present-day Bilzingsleben, East Germany constructed shelters similar to those of Bushmen in southern Africa. Circular bone and stone foundations were discovered for three huts between 9 and 13 feet across. In the middle of on circle, archaeologist found an elephant tusk, which they speculated was a center post.
At the 350,000-year-old site in Bilzingsleben, archaeologists found pieces of bone and smooth stones arranged in a 27-foot-wide circle. "They intentionally paved this area for cultural activities," Dietrich Mania off the University of Jena, told National Geographic. "We found here a large anvil of quartzite set between the horns of a huge bison. Near it were fractured human skulls."
Describing an elephant tibia engraved with a series a regular lines found at Bilzingsleben, Mania said, "Seven lines go in one direction, 21 go in the other. We have found other pieces of bone with cut lines that are also too regular to be accidental. They are graphic symbols. To us they are evidence of abstract thinking and human language." The tibia was dated at around 400,000 years ago.
Scientists debate whether 400,000-year-old hominids were capable of symbolic thinking, often regarded as hallmark of language. If Mania’s conjectures are correct, then ancient hominids could have been much more advanced than previously thought.
In Zambia, scientists found what they said were 350,000-year-old ocher crayons. If these crayons had in fact been used to make drawings or markings they could be regarded as the oldest known attempt to paint, suggests that early man attempted create art much earlier than people thought.
Archaeology has long associated advanced blade production with the Upper Palaeolithic period, about 30,000-40,000 years ago, linked with the emergence of Homo Sapiens and cultural features such as cave art. Now researchers at Tel Aviv University have uncovered evidence which shows that "modern" blade production was also an element of Amudian industry during the late Lower Paleolithic period, 200,000-400,000 years ago as part of the Acheulo-Yabrudian cultural complex, a geographically limited group of hominins who lived in modern-day Israel, Lebanon, Syria and Jordan.