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Instead, the Taovaya, a subgroup of the Wichita, faced greater and more immediate pressure from neighboring tribes, he said.
“The fortifications built at Wichita villages served as defenses against primarily native groups such as the Apache and Osage,” he observed.
The Osage frequently raided Wichita villages for horses, he said, while Apache groups, “an old enemy of the Wichita,” were being pushed into nearby territory by the Comanche