It looks like you're using an Ad Blocker.
Please white-list or disable AboveTopSecret.com in your ad-blocking tool.
Some features of ATS will be disabled while you continue to use an ad-blocker.
Overall, Ebola virus socio-ecology systems have shown to be linked by direct and indirect transmission through contact with objects from patients.
For example, the blood or secretions of an infected person or objects that have been contaminated with infected secretions can reach humans from a variety of hosts/sources
Case identification and detection, contact tracing and patient clinical assessment and management are not the object of this Guidance document and instructions can be found elsewhere.1, 2 However, regarding IPC measures to be implemented during interviews for contact tracing and case finding in the community, the following principles should be kept in mind: 1) shaking hands should be avoided;
2) a distance of more than one metre (about 3 feet) should be maintained between interviewer and interviewee;
3) PPE is not required if this distance is assured and when interviewing asymptomatic individuals (e.g., neither fever, nor diarrhoea, bleeding or vomiting) and provided there will be no contact with the environment, potentially contaminated with a possible/probable case;
4) it is advisable to provide workers undertaking contact tracing and case finding in the community with alcohol-based hand rub solutions and instructions to appropriately perform hand hygiene.
Infection, although occurring indirectly through body fluids, is strongly suspected to occur through airborne as well as skin contact transmission.
The susceptibility to infection of arthropod taxa can be assessed by virus replication after intrathoracic inoculation of virus. Turell et al.  reported that EBO virus, subtype Reston (EBO-R), failed to replicate in Culex or Aedes mosquitoes and in Ornithodoros ticks.
However, Kunz et al.  previously reported that MBG virus could persist in Aedes mosquitoes for 3 weeks or more, indicating that certain arthropods exposed towasp.Altho the virus could be transient or persistent carriers of infection.
Many potential blood-feeding arthropod vectors (phlebotomine flies, culicoids, ixodid ticks, mites, fleas, and wingless flies associated with bats) have not been tested by experimental inoculation.
The susceptibility of insects used by humans or wild vertebrate reservoir hosts as a source of food (including termites, moths, and larvae [grubs]) also has not been explored. As will be discussed below, there has been recent speculation about the possible role of leafhoppers in filovirus ecology; therefore, experimental studies should determine the host range of EBO virus for plant-feeding bugs.
EBO and MBG viruses are similar in genome organization and have extensive sequence homology but do not share cross-reactive antigens . The ecology of EBO viruses is certainly more complex than that of MBG. Operational hypotheses on the ecology of EBO virus must take into account the factors discussed below.
At least 4 genetic subtypes of EBO virus have been recognized: Zaire (EBO-Z), Côte d'Ivoire (EBO-CI) , Sudan (EBO-S) , and EBO-R. EBO-R was recovered in the Philippines  and from monkeys imported from the Philippines to the United States and Europe.
The occurrence of a distinct EBO virus subtype in the Philippines has important implications for filovirus ecology, since it implies that EBO group viruses may have been carried by migratory hosts at some point in their evolution.
Although dogs are susceptible to Ebola, the CDC concluded that "infected dogs are asymptomatic", meaning that they do not develop symptoms.
During the early phase of their infection, however, they can spread the disease to humans and other animals through licking, biting, urine, and feces.
However, the good news is that once the virus is cleared from the dog it is no longer contagious. Dogs do not die from Ebola infections.
We found EBOV to be shed in a wide variety of bodily fluids during the acute phase of illness, including saliva, breast milk, stool, and tears. In most cases, the infected bodily fluid was not visibly contaminated by blood. Of particular concern is the frequent presence of EBOV in saliva early during the course of disease, where it could be transmitted to others through intimate contact and from sharing food,especially given the custom, in many parts of Africa, of eating with the hands from a common plate.