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The bestselling landmark account of the first emergence of the Ebola virus. A highly infectious, deadly virus from the central African rain forest suddenly appears in the suburbs of Washington, D.C. There is no cure. In a few days 90 percent of its victims are dead. A secret military SWAT team of soldiers and scientists is mobilized to stop the outbreak of this exotic "hot" virus. The Hot Zone tells this dramatic story, giving a hair-raising account of the appearance of rare and lethal viruses and their "crashes" into the human race. Shocking, frightening, and impossible to ignore, The Hot Zone proves that truth really is scarier than fiction.
The Hot Zone: A Terrifying True Story is a best-selling 1995 non-fiction thriller by Richard Preston about the origins and incidents involving viral hemorrhagic fevers, particularly ebolaviruses and marburgviruses. The basis of the book was Preston's 1992 New Yorker article "Crisis in the Hot Zone".
The filoviruses Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Marburg virus (MARV), and Ravn virus (RAVV) are Biosafety Level 4 agents. Biosafety Level 4 agents are extremely dangerous to humans because they are very infectious, have a high case-fatality rate, and there are no known prophylactics, treatments, or cures. Along with describing the history of the diseases caused by these two Central African diseases, Ebola virus disease (EVD) and Marburg virus disease (MVD), Preston describes a 1989 incident in which a relative of Ebola virus named Reston virus (RESTV), was discovered at a primate quarantine facility in Reston, Virginia, less than fifteen miles (24 km) away from Washington, DC. The virus found at the facility was a mutated form of the original Ebola virus, and was initially mistaken for Simian Hemorrhagic Fever (SHV). The original Reston facility involved in the incident, located at 1946 Isaac Newton Square, was subsequently torn down sometime between 1995 and 1998.
Ravn virus (RAVV) is a close relative of the much more commonly known Marburg virus (MARV). RAVV causes severe disease in humans and (experimentally) in nonhuman primates in the form of viral hemorrhagic fever. RAVV is a Select Agent, World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogen (requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment), National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A Priority Pathogen, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Category A Bioterrorism Agent, and listed as a Biological Agent for Export Control by the Australia Group.
Reston virus (abbreviated RESTV) was first described in 1990 as a new "strain" of Ebola virus (EBOV), a result of mutation from Ebola virus. It is the single member of the species Reston ebolavirus, which is included into the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. Reston virus is named after Reston, Virginia, US, where the virus was first discovered.
RESTV was discovered in crab-eating macaques from Hazleton Laboratories (now Covance) in 1989. This attracted significant media attention due to the proximity of Reston to the Washington, DC metro area, and the lethality of a closely related Ebola virus. Despite its status as a level-4 organism, Reston virus is non-pathogenic to humans, though hazardous to monkeys; the perception of its lethality was compounded by the monkey's coinfection with Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV).
Simian hemorrhagic fever virus or simian haemorrhagic fever virus or SHFV is a highly pathogenic virus in monkeys. It is a positive-stranded RNA virus classified in the family Arteriviridae.
Patas are believed to be the natural host for the virus since about 50% of wild patas monkeys have antibodies for the virus, while antibodies are much less prevalent in other simian species such as vervets and baboons. In macaques, however, infection with this virus can result in acute severe disease with high mortality. Recently, red colobus monkeys and red-tailed guenons have been identified as natural hosts for SHFV.
Taï Forest virus (TAFV) is a close relative of the much more commonly known Ebola virus (EBOV). TAFV causes severe disease in primates, the Ebola hemorrhagic fever. TAFV is a Select Agent, World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogen (requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment), National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A Priority Pathogen, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Category A Bioterrorism Agent, and listed as a Biological Agent for Export Control by the Australia Group.
Lassa virus (LASV) is an Old World arenavirus that causes Lassa hemorrhagic fever, a type of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in human and non-human primates. Lassa virus is an emerging virus and a select agent, requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment. It is endemic in West African countries, especially Sierra Leone, the Republic of Guinea, Nigeria, and Liberia, where the annual incidence of infection is between 300,000 and 500,000 cases, resulting in 5,000 deaths per year. Recent discoveries on the Lassa Virus within the Mano River Region provide evidence will require the expansion the endemicity zone between the two known Lassa endemic regions, indicating that LASV is more widely distributed throughout the Tropical Wooded Savanna ecozone in West Africa. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans.
Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is a close relative of the much more commonly known Ebola virus (EBOV). BDBV causes severe disease in humans and (experimentally) in nonhuman primates, the Ebola hemorrhagic fever. BDBV is a Select Agent, World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogen (requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment), National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A Priority Pathogen, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Category A Bioterrorism Agent, and is listed as a Biological Agent for Export Control by the Australia Group.
originally posted by: FamCore
Another thought I had - didn't scientists successfully combine flu strains into a single, more potent/damaging strain? Could they potentially combine this virus (or others) with the deadliest strain of ebola to create a FrankenVirus that's much more likely to wreak havoc?
a reply to: ripcontrol
originally posted by: yorkshirelad
Oh for God's sake do you lot never read!
Please read how AND MORE IMPORTANTLY WHEN !!!!!!! Ebola was discovered and how and how it was named.
Once you do that then the two unaffected brain cells left in the conspiratorial head will go DUH! its a natural virus.
Unfortunately such a conclusion prevents doom porn excitement doesn't it..........
First Ebola, now Marburg. Here’s why deadly viruses are on the rise in Africa
….Why do these viruses seem to be flaring up more often? While it’s not yet clear where the Ugandan patient contracted Marburg, in general, this is likely happening because, as mining and agricultural industry push further into tropical forests, humans are coming into contact with infected animals much more frequently. Several Marburg outbreaks, for instance, have begun by infecting miners.
Forests are home to what are called the viruses’ “reservoir hosts,” the animal populations that harbor a virus in between human outbreaks but are immune to its symptoms. While Marburg hides out in fruit bats, other similar viruses thrive in rodent populations.
No one knows for certain where Ebola lies low in between epidemics, which makes it hard to anticipate where future outbreaks will occur. However, some research suggests that, like Marburg, fruit bats also incubate Ebola.
Bats are excellent at this because they hang out in huge colonies, packed tightly into caves, which makes it easy for the virus to spread among them. And the more a virus leaps from host to host, the greater the chance for it to mutate into a form even deadlier to humans. Scientists suspect that primates or monkeys are first infected with the virus after eating fruit tainted with urine or other bat fluids. They then pass the virus on to humans.
....Problem is, in a Pandemic, those with compromised immune systems will be the first to go ...
Fresh Graves Point to Undercount of Ebola Toll
….The majority of the recent deaths recorded at the cemetery were young people — young adults, people in early middle age, or children — with very few elderly people on the list.