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originally posted by: LDragonFire
a reply to: boncho
Just curious, if Native Americans used walls and forts why didn't they build any fighting against the Blue coats?
An Indian traitor betrayed his people and told the English the location of a large Narragansett winter camp. The fortress-camp was surrounded by a palisade deep within a swamp.
As early as the year 1000,
for example, Huron, Neutral, Petun and Iroquois villages
were increasingly fortified by a timber palisade that
could be nearly 10 metres in height, sometimes villages
built a second or even third ring to protect them against
attacks by enemy nations. Craig Keener has described
how these structures became larger and more elaborate
through to the 1500s, with logs as large as 24 inches
in diameter being used to construct the multi-layered
defences, an enormous investment in communal labour
that the villagers would not have made had it not been
deemed necessary. Sieges and assaults on such fortified
villages therefore must have occurred before Europeans
arrived, and were certainly evident in the 17th and 18th
originally posted by: Hefficide
a reply to: LDragonFire
Eastern tribes seem to have utilized wooden walls. Some western tribes used natural caves elevated above the ground. This could be equally seen as protection from natural predators as for protection from invasion by other tribes.
Before the French arrived, the Huron had already been in conflict with the Haudenosaunee Confederacy ("Five Nations") to the south. Several thousand Huron lived as far south as present-day central West Virginia along the Kanawha River by the late 16th century, but they were driven out by the Haudenosaunee, who invaded from present-day New York in the 17th century to secure more hunting grounds for the beaver trade. Once the European powers became involved in trading, the conflict among natives intensified significantly as they struggled to control the fur trade. The French allied with the Huron, because they were the most advanced trading nation at the time. The Haudenosaunee tended to ally with the Dutch and later English, who settled at Albany and in the Mohawk Valley of their New York territory.
Introduction of European weapons and the fur trade increased competition and the severity of inter-tribal warfare. On March 16, 1649, a Haudenosaunee war party of about 1000 burned the Huron mission villages of St. Ignace and St. Louis in present-day Simcoe County, Ontario, killing about 300 people. They also killed many of the Jesuit missionaries, who have since been honored as North American Martyrs. The surviving Jesuits burned the mission after abandoning it to prevent its capture. The Iroquois attack shocked the Huron.
By May 1, 1649, the Huron burned 15 of their villages to prevent their stores from being taken and fled as refugees to surrounding tribes. About 10,000 fled to Gahoendoe (Christian Island). Most who fled to the island starved over the winter, as it was a non-productive settlement and could not provide for them. Those who survived were believed to have resorted to cannibalism to do so. After spending the bitter winter of 1649–50 on Gahoendoe, surviving Huron relocated near Quebec City, where they settled at Wendake. Absorbing other refugees, they became the Huron-Wendat Nation. Some Huron, along with the surviving Petun, whose villages the Iroquois attacked in the fall of 1649, fled to the upper Lake Michigan region, settling first at Green Bay, then at Michilimackinac.
At Crow Creek - a large Initial Coalescent village in South Dakota with a terminal occupation around AD 1325 - a mass-burial deposit containing the remains of a minimum 486 men, women and children was discovered in a fortification ditch that partially surrounded the village. Most of the bodies had been mutilated and showed signs of exposure before interment. At least 89 percent 415 identified frontal bones had cut marks indicative of scalping, and 41 percent of 101 skulls identified had round or ellipsoid depression fractures from round or axelike clubbing implements. Decapitation and possible tongue removal by humans was also evident by anatomical placement of cut marks on occipital bones, cervical vertebrae and mandibles. North American Indigenous Warfare and Ritual Violence Page 213
originally posted by: LDragonFire
Look at the French and Indian war and the use of cannon really made the fort obsolete...
20th century scholarly estimates ranged from 8.4 million to 112.5 million. However, Robert Royal stated, "estimates of pre-Columbian population figures have become heavily politicized with scholars who are particularly critical of Europe and/or Western civilization often favoring wildly higher figures."
While it is difficult to determine exactly how many Natives lived in North America before Columbus, estimates range from a low of 2.1 million (Ubelaker 1976) to 7 million people (Russell Thornton) to a high of 18 million (Dobyns 1983).
Nearly all scholars now believe that widespread epidemic disease, to which the natives had no prior exposure or resistance, was the overwhelming cause of the massive population decline of the Native Americans
One of the most contentious issues relating to disease depopulation in the Americas concerns the degree to which Europeans deliberately infected indigenous peoples with diseases such as smallpox.
Letters exist between two British officers, General Jeffrey Amherst (later Lord Amherst) and Colonel Henry Bouquet, that explicitly advocate the idea of using smallpox-infested blankets to kill Indians at the Siege of Fort Pitt. Bouquet suggests the distribution of blankets to "inocculate the Indians." Amherst approves this plan and suggests "to try Every other method that can serve to Extirpate this Execrable Race." Also cited by this source is an entry in the Journal of William Trent, who was the local militia commander: "we gave them two Blankets and an Handkerchief out of the Small Pox Hospital. I hope it will have the desired effect."
While no existing evidence supports that this attempt was successful, a preponderance of documented evidence suggests that the smallpox among the natives preceded the exchange, was contracted from a different source, and the attempt to "inoculate" the recipients, Turtle's Heart and Mamaltee, was unsuccessful.
Cook asserts that there is no evidence that the Spanish attempted to infect the American natives. The cattle introduced by the Spanish polluted the water reserves which Native Americans dug in the fields to accumulate rain water. In response, the Franciscans and Dominicans created public fountains and aqueducts to guarantee access to drinking water. But when the Franciscans lost their privileges in 1572, many of these fountains were not guarded any more and deliberate well poisoning may have happened. Although no proof of such poisoning has been found, some historians believe the decrease of the population correlates with the end of religious orders' control of the water.
How close will scholars ever come to the real numbers? A recent effort by ge- ographer William Denevan to reconcile the many conflicting estimates, by using the best findings of various scholars, concludes that 54 million people inhab- ited the Americas in 1492, including 3.8 million above the Rio Grande.