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originally posted by: soficrow
a reply to: Rodinus
Thanks Rodinus. As stated in the OP, experts say it's "unlikely" Ebola will mutate to be airborne in humans - even though the virus already is airborne in pigs. However, the more human hosts infected, the greater the risk a mutation allowing efficient airborne transmission will emerge. So the argument is this: it is NOT worth the risk, however small, to allow the Ebola epidemic to continue unabated in West Africa because the risk of efficient airborne mutation increases with every new human host.
Ebola viruses (EBOV) cause often fatal hemorrhagic fever in several species of simian primates including human. While fruit bats are considered natural reservoir, involvement of other species in EBOV transmission is unclear. In 2009, Reston-EBOV was the first EBOV detected in swine with indicated transmission to humans. In-contact transmission of Zaire-EBOV (ZEBOV) between pigs was demonstrated experimentally. Here we show ZEBOV transmission from pigs to cynomolgus macaques without direct contact. Interestingly, transmission between macaques in similar housing conditions was never observed. Piglets inoculated oro-nasally with ZEBOV were transferred to the room housing macaques in an open inaccessible cage system. All macaques became infected. Infectious virus was detected in oro-nasal swabs of piglets, and in blood, swabs, and tissues of macaques. This is the first report of experimental interspecies virus transmission, with the macaques also used as a human surrogate. Our finding may influence prevention and control measures during EBOV outbreaks.
In an outbreak or isolated case among humans, just how the virus is transmitted from the natural reservoir to a human is unknown. Once a human is infected, however, person-to-person transmission is the means by which further infections occur. Specifically, transmission involves close personal contact between an infected individual or their body fluids, and another person. During recorded outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever caused by a Filovirus infection, persons who cared for (fed, washed, medicated) or worked very closely with infected individuals were especially at risk of becoming infected themselves. Nosocomial (hospital) transmission through contact with infected body fluids - via reuse of unsterilized syringes, needles, or other medical equipment contaminated with these fluids - has also been an important factor in the spread of disease. When close contact between uninfected and infected persons is minimized, the number of new Filovirus infections in humans usually declines. Although in the laboratory the viruses display some capability of infection through small-particle aerosols, airborne spread among humans has not been clearly demonstrated.
originally posted by: Rodinus
Ever since the very first known Ebola outbreak in Zaire back in 1976 absolutely tons of research was carried out in swine to swine and swine to primate possible airborne contamination.
A snippet of one of those studies carried out is here : .....
....Taking into consideration the amount of Ebola outbreaks that have happened in the past : roughly 26, I think that Ebola (any of the strains) would have had plenty of time to mutate into an airborn contamination.
...why are ordinary folk still flying to affected areas???
Ebola Outbreak: Japan Develops 30-Minute 'Simpler' Test To Quickly Diagnose Deadly Virus
Although Ebola viruses can cause fatal disease in humans and other primates, pigs can carry the infections with few ill effects. Now, Canadian scientists have shown that apparently healthy pigs can pass the deadliest species of Ebola to monkeys, even without ever coming into contact with them.
The study shows that the virus can spread without direct contact, but “keep in mind that Ebola is not suddenly an airborne virus, like influenza,” said Kobinger. Instead, the virus could have jumped from pigs to monkeys via small droplets in the air, or larger ones that splashed into the monkeys’ cages when the handlers cleaned the floor of the pigs’ a
Even if it was known to be airborne.... why say something like that? To fan the flames?