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The D layer is the innermost layer, 60 km to 90 km above the surface of the Earth. Ionization here is due to Lyman series-alpha hydrogen radiation at a wavelength of 121.5 nanometre (nm) ionizing nitric oxide (NO). In addition, with high Solar activity hard X-rays (wavelength < 1 nm) may ionize (N2, O2). During the night cosmic rays produce a residual amount of ionization. Recombination is high in the D layer, the net ionization effect is low, but loss of wave energy is great due to frequent collisions of the electrons (about ten collisions every msec). As a result high-frequency (HF) radio waves are not reflected by the D layer but suffer loss of energy therein. This is the main reason for absorption of HF radio waves, particularly at 10 MHz and below, with progressively smaller absorption as the frequency gets higher. The absorption is small at night and greatest about midday. The layer reduces greatly after sunset; a small part remains due to galactic cosmic rays. A common example of the D layer in action is the disappearance of distant AM broadcast band stations in the daytime.
FILAMENT ERUPTION, POSSIBLY EARTH-DIRECTED: For days, amateur astronomers around the world have been monitoring an enormous filament of dark plasma snaking across the face of the sun. Today it erupted. A movie from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory seems to show debris from the blast hurtling in the general direction of Earth. Stay tuned for coronagraph data, which could confirm or refute an Earth-directed CME. UPDATE: According to NOAA analysts, the CME could deliver a glancing blow to Earth's magnetic field on Sept. 6th. This is not a particularly fast or powerful CME. Nevertheless, the coming impact could spark auroras. The last two minor CMEs that struck Earth in late August triggered beautiful displays of Northern and Southern Lights. The reason: it's aurora season. High-latitude sky watchers should prepare for Sept. 6th.
Added 09/05/2014 @ 22:40 UTC Geomagnetic Storm Watch A minor geomagnetic storm watch is in effect for the next 24-48 hours. A large filament eruption observed on Tuesday generated a CME that may deliver a glancing blow to our geomagnetic field. Sky watchers at high latitudes should remain alert as we head into the weekend.
originally posted by: JimNasium
When I go out in public I'll also bring My Q-Link™ ....
I can tell a difference and one of My dogs can too.. The 2 times She has refused to go on a morning walk was the 2 times I didn't have My Q-Link™