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P1 - - We demonstrate that only strong explosives could be the cause of such seismic waves, in accordance with the observed low frequencies. - -
P1 - - According to the nature of the recorded waves (body and surface waves), we can propose a location of each explosive source. According to the presence of shear waves or the presence of Rayleigh waves only, we hypothesize a subterranean or a sub-aerial explosion.
The magnitude of an aerial explosion is insufficient to provide seismic waves at 34 km.
The witnesses and video observation confirm our conclusions of sub-aerial explosions close to the times of aircraft impacts on WTC1 and WTC2, a strong subterranean explosion closely correlated with the WTC1 collapse, and sub-aerial explosions closely correlated with the WTC2 and WTC7 collapses, WTC7 not having been hit by a plane. As a consequence, we draw the conclusion that the three buildings were demolished by a controlled process. - -
P3 - - Normally in this type of study the time of origin is known with great precision (to the millisecond), which is necessary in order to calculate the propagation speed of the different waves. Unfortunately, that precision is not possible for the events at the WTC. In this case, timing of the waves must be correlated as well as possible utilizing video evidence. - -
P3 - - Finally, the enormous indeterminacy of 2 seconds in the calculations attempting to fix the time of origin of each of the signals, admitted by the LDEO authors themselves (Kim et al., 2001), oblige us to view the official conclusions critically. - -
P3 - - Further, the waves generated by the two events do not have the same apparent velocity.
The calculation of the propagation speeds, derived from the times measured in the graphs of Figures 1a and 1b between the origins fixed according to the corresponding crashes and the first wave arrivals – namely, respectively 11.7 and 15.8 seconds - indicates roughly 2900 m/s for WTC1 and 2150 m/s for WTC2. - -
P4 - - The actual waves generated by the crashes had to have been deadened before hitting the ground. Frequencies of waves generated by explosions are on the order of 1 Hertz (1 Hz, or one cycle per second) --which is the case with the Rayleigh waves shown in figures 1a and 1b-- while those of crash impacts are above 10 Hz and are often around 100 Hz.
Furthermore, the range of the recording instruments (0.6-5 Hz) cited does not allow for the recording of the high-frequency waves that would be created by plane impacts.
As to the theory of the oscillation of the Towers to explain these signals, as defended by Irvine (2001), it is inadequate because in such a case we would have had a "square" signal of long duration and a constant amplitude, while in actuality we observe a "bell-like" signal, representing a strong and brief explosion, which is particularly evident in the case of WTC2. - -
P4 - - The waveform data, far from suggesting the conclusion of LDEO that they were caused by plane impacts into the Towers, suggest instead two explosions with different time displacements from the moments of plane impact at each building. Further, the difference in the magnitude of the two signals can only be linked to differences in the volume of explosives and/or their distance from the surface. - -
P4 - - the signals attributed to the collapses of WTC1 and WTC2, instead of being similar as one would suppose from the official thesis, are in fact very different. They differ in their form, their composition, and especially in their apparent propagation speed, as calculated from the official origin time.
In fact, the recording for WTC1 (Fig. 2a) demonstrates the three types of wave characteristic of a brief explosive source confined in a compact, solid material :
a P wave with a speed of 6000 m/s, the typical value for a very consolidated crystalline or sedimentary terrain (which is the case in the bedrock of Manhattan), an S wave with a speed of 3500 m/s, and a surface wave with a speed of 1800 m/s (a Rayleigh wave).
These values match those registered from an earthquake or seismic prospecting (see for example Kim et al. 2001).
On the other hand, the recording linked to WTC2 (Fig. 2b) does not show the P or S body waves observed for WTC1 but only the surface Rayleigh wave, for which the spreading of the amplitudes over the duration is different from that of WTC1. The propagation speed of 2125 m/s is also markedly different from that of WTC1. Further, this wave seems to be followed by a second Rayleigh wave four seconds later. - -
P5 - - We find the same thing for WTC7 (Fig. 2c), where the calculation of the speed of the wave according to the determined origin time indicates a Rayleigh wave with a 2200 m/s speed. Note that the amplitudes are comparable to those of the waves emitted at the time of the crashing of the airplanes into the Towers. This wave seems to be followed by a second Rayleigh wave 6 or 7 seconds later.
In the three cases, the bell-like form points to an impulsive source of energy, not percussion on the ground due to the fall of debris. The total mass and the average mass of individual building fragments were relatively small and fell to the ground over a period of more than ten seconds (which is a very long time in geophysics). Also note that the duration of a seismic signal does not tell anything about the source, in distinction from the amplitude and, particularly, the frequency. - -
P5 - - What are the indisputable data here? There are two: the time that the waves reached the Palisades station, which is relatively easy to determine, and the distance from the WTC to Palisades (34 km). If the recorded wave is actually a Rayleigh wave, its (group) velocity is around 2000 m/s. Therefore, this wave was created 17 seconds before its arrival at Palisades. - -
P6 - - there is a hiatus of 15 seconds between the plausible time of the origin of the Rayleigh wave based on the Palisades data and the time -- afterwards -- of the crash of the plane into WTC1 based on the ground radar data.
What else but an explosion could be the origin for this seismic wave in the absence of an earthquake? A similar discrepancy exists in the data for the seismic wave and impact times for WTC2. - -
P6 - - The necessary condition for the creation of seismic waves by such a crash would be the direct impact into the central columns by a full body. - -
- - In conclusion, even if a seismic wave could be created in a steel column, it would hit the ground only in the form of seismic noise, and as the passage from metal to rock is a refraction that absorbs energy, there would not be much left to propagate in the ground. - -
P7 - - Only explosions could produce the waves observed but various possible explosive configurations must be considered. We must distinguish between 1) subterranean explosions, 2) aerial explosions and 3) sub-aerial explosions (close to the ground without touching it).
Subterranean explosions are similar to earthquakes in that mechanical energy is transmitted to the earth in the form of body waves of two types, P and S (for "primary" and "secondary," or "pressure" and "shear"), and surface waves (either Rayleigh or transverse L) when the signal reaches a solid-fluid interface (for example, the atmosphere at the surface). Another name for Rayleigh waves is ground roll.
Aerial explosions release all of their energy in the air (as P waves, which in the atmosphere are simply sound waves), and what remains upon hitting the ground is thus too weak to create body waves in the solid earth (although there can be surface waves over a small distance).
Sub-aerial explosions give off energy that splits into sound waves, mainly in the air, and surface waves in the ground. - -
P7 - - Read this whole chapter, it's too important to miss : EXPLOSIONS THE SOURCE OF 9/11 SEISMIC WAVEFORMS - -
- - A subterranean explosion might not be heard, but the ground would shake and initiate a series of waves (body and surface waves). If we distinctly hear an explosion, it is either aerial, which does not give a seismic signal, or it is sub-aerial, in which case surface waves could be generated. The seismic wave data - - etcetera - -
P8 - - Based upon the kind of waves coming from WTC2 and WTC7, they each underwent one or more very large sub-aerial explosions, heard and reported by witnesses. - -
- - The same thing happened at WTC7.
A witness watching this building heard something like a "thunderclap" that caused the windows to explode outwards, while the base of the burning building gave way a second later, before the whole building followed the movement (Testimony ), aided by a second explosion, which generated the second Rayleigh wave 6 to 7 seconds later. - -
- - Even if standard controlled demolitions do not create seismic waves (because the explosions are aerial), it is useful to compare the data from the World Trade Center on 9/11 with seismic data obtained during the controlled demolition of other buildings such as the Kingdome in Seattle (Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network, 2000) and at Oklahoma City (US) (Holzer et al., 1996). The case of the Kingdome is particularly interesting because seismologists expressly asked that the explosions be measured (in order to take advantage of the occasion to gather research data), and those in Oklahoma City were part of a reconstruction, using explosives, of the partially destroyed Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building. These two examples involved a powerful sub-aerial explosion and the emitting of Rayleigh waves. Furthermore, the falling of the debris had no seismic consequences, even at distances well below 34 km (less than 7 km and 26 km respectively). Only the seismic equipment situated close to the source during the reconstruction of the bombing in Oklahoma City was able to record the seismic energy created by the collapse of the building.- -
- - The same thing happened at WTC7. A witness watching this building heard something like a "thunderclap" that caused the windows to explode outwards, while the base of the burning building gave way a second later, before the whole building followed the movement (Testimony ), aided by a second explosion, which generated the second Rayleigh wave 6 to 7 seconds later. - -
Explosion at 2:39 matches time frame for famous thunderclap recorded by Lucia Davis beside firefighters using a pay phone at Murray and West Broadway 3 blocks north of Ground Zero, more details :
Table 5-3. Timeline for major WTC 7 collapse observations
- 3 Dust and/or smoke are observed being pushed across West Broadway from the east side of the building.
0 The east edge of the east penthouse starts to move downward; the east penthouse folds roughly 40 percent of the way across from the east edge; the two sections of the east penthouse appear to rotate into the roof, with the east section disappearing first.
0.6 Glass breaks in windows 40-44B and 40-44 D; additional windows open on this floor over the next couple of seconds.
1.3 The northeast corner of the east penthouse disappears from view; evidence suggests that the east section of the east penthouse had broken into two additional pieces along an east-west line.
1.6 The southern part of the eastern section of the east penthouse disappears from view, appearing to rotate into roof about an east-west line.
1.9 A small section at the east end of the north screenwall detaches and falls away; it may have fallen through the opening in the roof created by the descending east penthouse.
2.0 The western section of the east penthouse disappears from view; it appears to rotate into the roof about a north-south line; a tear-drop shaped light variation covering several floors on the building façade begins to propagate downward on the north face; a bright area in the windows on the east side of the 46th and 47th floors is attributed to sunlight shining through the open roof.
2.0 Additional windows start to open between Columns 43 and 45 on the 40th to 45th floors.
3.4 A small piece of debris falls away from an area at the eastern end of the screenwalls.
3.8 Earliest view of a small portion of the area at the base of WTC 7 indicates that a dust cloud has already formed.
~~ 5 The tear drop shaped light variation on the north façade moves out of sight near the 33rd floor.
6.9 The beginning of the global collapse of WTC 7 was detected on the north face; the roofline below the east penthouse location and the eastern end of the screenwall start dropping simultaneously; the eastern end of the north wall rotates northward and a kink develops near Column 47.
8.0 Windows open over multiple floors on the west side near Column 55; the amount of damage grows rapidly; dust flows from open windows.
8.3 A small object, likely part of the south wall, falls away from the east end of the screenwalls.
8.5 The east end of the screenwall disappears behind the north face parapet.
9.2 Dust begins to flow from open windows on the east side near the top of the building.
9.3 The west penthouse disappears from view below the north face parapet.
12.0 The upper portion of the building breaks up as it collapses.
13.5 The upper portion of WTC 7 disappears into a dust cloud created by the collapse.
NCSTAR 1-9 Vol 1 Chapters 1 - 8, side 290
One construction expert wrote: “The complexity of the other relationships are also what we would expect from a high-energy nuclear explosion rather than the low-energy fission in a controlled reactor. Fission did not stop with two fission fragments—many of these were fissioned in turn into smaller atoms by the intense concentrated neutron radiation in and underneath the building[s].”
--snip-- Seismologists point out that Richter readings always come from Earth’s movements, or explosives coupled to the ground, not from plane impacts on buildings or falling debris. Earthquakes rumble up to a climax and then decrease, but a sudden spike denotes a ground-planted explosive device.
A look at charts in the endnotes from the Palisades station across the Hudson River shows sharp spikes of short duration, a hallmark for detecting any underground explosions whether from nearby quarry blasts or faraway nuclear testing.--snip--
--snip-- Radioactive fallout found by the U.S. Geological Survey in samples from 35 sites surrounding the WTC for nearly a mile.--snip--
--snip--electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) --snip--
--snip-- and, possibly, the giveaway light-blue Cerenkov Radiation when the debris “pile” was cleared in mid-March. --snip--
--snip-- Add to all these signs, the molten metal in the footprints of WTC 1, 2, and 7 that for three months could not be extinguished by water or daily soil changes as it consumed concrete, steel, glass, office combustibles.--snip--
--snip-- The increasing incidence of radiation-only cancers from residents is another tell-tale sign of a nuclear “event.”--snip--
--snip-- “The complexity of the other relationships are also what we would expect from a high-energy nuclear explosion rather than the low-energy fission in a controlled reactor. Fission did not stop with two fission fragments—many of these were fissioned in turn into smaller atoms by the intense concentrated neutron radiation in and underneath the building[s].” --snip--
--snip--and the radioactive materials revealed by USGS spectrometers.--snip--
originally posted by: cardinalfan0596
a reply to: LaBTop
So now the NYPD aerial units and the news helicopters were part of the plot? That is the only conceivable reason why they are highlighted. Disgusting.