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Infection, although occurring indirectly through body fluids, is strongly suspected to occur through airborne as well as skin contact transmission.
The clinical picture of the initial cases was predominantly fever, vomiting, and severe diarrhea. Hemorrhage was not documented for most of the patients with confirmed disease at the time of sampling but may have developed during the later course of the disease.
The initial source of the outbreak appears to be the village of Meliandou in Guéckédou Prefecture, and the index case a two-year old child who died on 6th December 2013.
In its early stages, EVD is easily confused with other tropical fevers, such as malaria or dengue, until the appearance of the haemorrhagic terminal phase, presenting with the characteristic internal and sub-cutaneous bleeding, vomiting of blood and reddening of the eyes.
The indirect impact of the outbreak on the Guinean economy has been extensive, with the transport, tourism and entertainment sectors badly affected as people avoid crowded situations. Fewer miners have reported for work, which may eventually have global implications given that Guinea has one half of the world’s supply of bauxite as well as significant iron, diamond and gold deposits (Bah, 2014b).
The fact that the Guinea outbreak strain is an outlier within EBOV suggests that it is not an introduction of a central African strain into west Africa, but has been present in bat populations in Guinea without previously infecting humans (Baize et al., 2014).
Epidemiological modelling based on the data from previous EBOV outbreaks has produced a basic reproduction number (R0) of 2.7 with a 95% confidence range of 1.9 to 4.1 (Legrand et al., 2007). This R0 is comparable to influenza (Mills et al., 2004) and would seem to be comfortably within the range required to generate an EVD pandemic. In answer to the question of why this has not already occurred in human history, perhaps the most persuasive response is that EVD very fortunately only emerged into human populations around the time of its discovery in the mid-1970s (Walsh et al., 2005), by which time we were fairly equipped to deal with it in remote low population density settings. Whether we can contain it within a large city, should the necessity to do so arise, remains to be seen.
I don't think they'll be putting keeping ebola from reaching our shores, at the top of their priority list. The political ramifications are coming into play.
originally posted by: paxnatus
a reply to: Diabolical
I posted eons ago directly to you, the reason they were bringing them to Emory was to conduct research and find a cure or a vaccine asap! You should be thanking your lucky stars that this happened the way it did, otherwise you may be dealing with this in your own back yard and you still might be anyway.
Don't you know there are no absolutes in Science i.e. medicine? If there were it would be called MATH...Trust me if there is a a global pandemic and your loved ones were sick you will be singing a different tune.
Positive thinking goes a long way.
In an article that apparently does not exist anymore (it was on reuters) at least one plane sawyer was on had 230 people
The early phase of infection is characterized by thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and a pronounced lymphopenia. Neutrophilia develops after several days, as do elevations in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. Bilirubin may be normal or slightly elevated.
Definitive diagnosis rests on isolation of the virus by means of tissue culture or reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. However, isolation of Ebola virus in tissue culture is a high-risk procedure that can be performed safely only in a few high-containment laboratories throughout the world.
the immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests may be useful in the diagnosis of Ebola virus infection. Both ELISA tests have been demonstrated to be sensitive and specific.
IgM-capture ELISA uses Zaire ebolavirus antigens grown in Vero E6 cells to detect IgM antibodies to this strain. Results become positive in experimental primates within 6 days of infection but do not remain positive for extended periods. These qualities indicate that the IgM test may be used to document acute Ebola infection.
IgG-capture ELISA uses detergent-extracted viral antigens to detect IgG anti-Ebola antibodies. It is more specific than the IFAT, and it remains positive for long periods. Accordingly, this test appears to be superior for seroprevalence investigations.
An antigen detection ELISA test is available that identifies Ebola virus antigens.
The Ebola virus in western Africa is a novel strain that probably evolved locally and circulated for months before the outbreak became apparent, researchers said. The index case is probably a 2-year-old child from Guinea's Guéckédou prefecture who died Dec. 6, 2013 -- several months before the outbreak was recognized in March, according to Stephan Günther, MD, of the Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine in Hamburg, Germany, and colleagues. The findings come from an early epidemiological "look-back" and genetic examination of virus samples from 15 patients, Günther and colleagues reported online in the New England Journal of Medicine.
"It is possible that EBOV has circulated undetected in this region for some time," they wrote, and its emergence "highlights the risk of EBOV outbreaks in the whole West African subregion." To try to get a handle on that emergence, the researchers reviewed hospital documentation and interviewed affected families, patients, and inhabitants of villages in which cases occurred. What appears to be the first case -- at the "current state of the epidemiologic investigation" -- was the 2-year-old, who lived in Meliandou in Guéckédou prefecture, the researchers wrote. Several members of her family also became ill and died, as did several contacts from other villages. Importantly, a healthcare worker who treated family members appears to have been the key player in spreading the virus beyond the local region.
“What’s going on is unprecedented,” Thomas Hope, a virologist at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, tells us. “Usually these things last two or three weeks and then get isolated.”
Not this time. And, Hope says, usually the virus grows less lethal as it passes from person to person, so people get less and less sick from it. Not this time.
“That is more than a little unnerving to me as a virologist because it suggests that maybe this strain is a little different or has adapted in a different way to cause disease in humans.”
Infectious disease expert Dr. Michael Osterholm of the University of Minnesota tells us that this strain of Ebola isn’t likely to be much different than others, but that international public health and local government officials “were slow to understand how fast the virus was spreading.” That’s why doctors and other health professionals are struggling to contain the disease. “This is like trying to change a tire in a hurricane,” he says.
originally posted by: 00nunya00
originally posted by: kruphix
a reply to: FraggleRock
They also say that they really had no idea it was Ebola for awhile, which allowed for it to spread. But I think the biggest issue was that the health worker probably spread it to other health workers and/or other patients he was treating.
At first, I was like "how the hell did they not suspect Ebola, especially in this region where they're always on watch for it?" But then this part jumped out:
Clinical investigation found that the most common symptoms among confirmed case-patients were fever, severe diarrhea, and vomiting, but hemorrhage was less common.
Which is both great, because it's probably one of the big reasons this outbreak is less deadly than other outbreaks of the Zaire strain, but also a little unnerving, because as we've discussed on this thread many times, people think "it's going to be obvious if someone has Ebola and not just the flu, because they'll be bleeding." And it seems that's exactly what they were thinking in Africa when this broke out. Flu season in the US this year is gonna be a nightmare of overcrowded hospitals and doctor's offices, if this doesn't sputter out soon. Yikes. :/
originally posted by: 00nunya00
originally posted by: crazyewok
a reply to: 00nunya00
I hate to say it but medical training in Africa is not on par with medical training in the west.
As for nurseing staff? Training is non existant, its what you pick up on the job.
Im not saying they are dumb but when your country cant even afford basic clean water, how do you expect them to fund a world leading university? They cant, and the shortage of modern equipment will make hands of experiance in teaching hospitals poor at best.
Its why doctors volenteering from the west are so valuble.
There is a reason why the best med schools in the world are in the USA and UK and most world leading doctors are American , British or western European. We have some of the most ridgid and strict medical programs .
Okay, y'all do know that not every square inch of Africa is a $#!thole, right? Doctors Without Borders volunteers largely in very remote areas where people couldn't even get to a hospital if they wanted to. They treat people who have no money for medical treatment. Hospitals in Africa are not ramshackle huts operated by morons. In fact, many many doctors in Africa actually studied in Europe and the US. Beyond all that, they know how to freaking spot the signs of Ebola, and know better than any of us the threat it poses to them. YES, hospitals in Africa have gloves and masks. Do they have CT-scan machines in every room? Of course not. But y'all are treating this issue as if it's totally logical that the entire hospital should expect to get ebola, because they're a bunch of undertrained and resource-starved morons. Enough. If you have any evidence that this hospital (or any other hospital you're speaking of in Africa) is shoddy and half-baked, please present it. Let's not all be racists and ignorant xenophobes and assume every single doctor and hospital in Africa is begging for Ebola because they "just don't know any better." THEY DO. THEY KNOW BETTER THAN ANY OF YOU, BECAUSE THEY ACTUALLY LIVE AND WORK THERE. No more dismissing facts based on skin color or geographic location, please.
ETA: sorry if I seem to be picking on you, ewok, I'm really not, it's just the entire thread's tone of "Africa is a slum, no wonder they all got this." And that's just wrong, in so many ways.
Edit again: There is absolutely nursing school and licensing in Africa.
It’s all over the news, and just days after the State Dept. helped ship in America’s first Ebola patients… Hm.
New York City’s Mt. Sinai Hospital has placed a man in isolation who recently returned from West Africa and showed up at the ER with a high fever and gastrointestinal symptoms — and the hospital’s statement on that sounds like it was scripted right out of a Hollywood movie:
“All necessary steps are being taken to ensure the safety of all patients, visitors and staff. We will continue to work closely with federal, state and city health officials to address and monitor this case, keep the community informed and provide the best quality care to all of our patients,” the hospital wrote in a statement.
Mt. Sinai is following what the Center for Disease Control recommended last week when they sent a Health Alert to doctors and hospitals.
The New York City Department of Health said, “After consultation with CDC and Mount Sinai, the Health Department has concluded that the patient is unlikely to have Ebola. Specimens are being tested for common causes of illness and to definitively exclude Ebola.”
Testing for Ebola is done at the CDC. According to a CDC spokesperson testing for Ebola takes 1-2 days after they receive the samples. The primary testing is PCR. This is performed on blood that has been treated to kill and live virus. So far CDC has tested samples from around 6 people who had symptoms consistent with Ebola and a travel history to the affected region.
Media coverage is now focusing on the experimental Ebola treatments being given to two American Ebola patients who contracted it while caring for victims in Africa — the site of the world’s deadliest outbreak.
But that Ebola treatment was developed by a leading bioengineering scientist from the University of Arizona who was caught on camera “joking” about wiping out humanity. Dr. Charles Arntzen suggested the use of a “better” genetically engineered virus during a post-lecture Q&A focused on over-population issues, citing the 2011 Hollywood film ‘Contagion.’
Gun confiscations and martial law are both plausible government responses to an Ebola outbreak in America considering recent policies by the Obama administration and the fact that the military has been preparing for domestic deployment for the past several years.
A cocktail of antibodies cooked up in tobacco plants may provide an emergency treatment for Ebola virus, one of the deadliest viruses known, researchers reported Wednesday.
The treatment provides 100 percent protection to monkeys when given right after exposure. But it also helps even after symptoms develop, the researchers report in the journal Science Translational Medicine.
originally posted by: Druid42
I've noticed the trollz have no avatars. Everyone who's been contributing solid INFORMATION has one.