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originally posted by: Kester
a reply to: jrod
Nothing green about factory made high tech junk.
Infrasound produces flight and avoidance responses in Pacific juvenile salmonids
F. R. Knudsen1,
C. B. Schreck2,
S. M. Knapp3,
P. S. Enger1,* and
Article first published online: 19 APR 2005
A 10-Hz frequency sound caused flight or avoidance responses in juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and rainbow trout O. mykiss. Groups of fish were placed in 3-m diameter circular tanks with a water depth of 1 m. The sound source was a 25-cm diameter aluminium tube with a piston in one end. The piston was driven back and forth by an eccentric coupling to an electric motor at a frequency of 10 Hz and with peak to peak amplitude of 4 cm. The sound source was turned on for 5 s when the fish was within 1 m. Initial tests always resulted in a strong flight response, but after three to four tests the fish more typically simply swam away as far as possible from the source. This avoidance response did not habituate even after 20 trials.
Experimental Evidence of Threat-Sensitive Collective Avoidance Responses in a Large Wild-Caught Herring School
Samantha Bui mail, Frode Oppedal, Øyvind J. Korsøen, Damien Sonny, Tim Dempster
Published: May 17, 2013
Understanding species-specific flight behaviours is essential in developing methods of guiding fish spatially, and requires knowledge on how groups of fish respond to aversive stimuli. By harnessing their natural behaviours, the use of physical manipulation or other potentially harmful procedures can be minimised. We examined the reactions of sea-caged groups of 50 salmon (1331±364 g) to short-term exposure to visual or acoustic stimuli. In light experiments, fish were exposed to one of three intensities of blue LED light (high, medium and low) or no light (control). Sound experiments included exposure to infrasound (12 Hz), a surface disturbance event, the combination of infrasound and surface disturbance, or no stimuli. Groups that experienced light, infrasound, and the combination of infrasound and surface disturbance treatments, elicited a marked change in vertical distribution, where fish dived to the bottom of the sea-cage for the duration of the stimulus. Light treatments, but not sound, also reduced the total echo-signal strength (indicative of swim bladder volume) after exposure to light, compared to pre-stimulus levels. Groups in infrasound and combination treatments showed increased swimming activity during stimulus application, with swimming speeds tripled compared to that of controls. In all light and sound treatments, fish returned to their pre-stimulus swimming depths and speeds once exposure had ceased. This work establishes consistent, short-term avoidance responses to these stimuli, and provides a basis for methods to guide fish for aquaculture applications, or create avoidance barriers for conservation purposes. In doing so, we can achieve the manipulation of group position with minimal welfare impacts, to create more sustainable practices.
Environmental Biology of Fishes 57: 327–336, 2000.
© 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.
Avoidance responses to infrasound in downstream migrating European silver eels, Anguilla anguilla
Olav Sand, Per S. Enger, Hans Erik Karlsen, Frank Knudsen & Torstein Kvernstuen
Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.B. 1051 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway
Received 15 July 1998 Accepted 31 March 1999
Key words: infrasound source, acoustic fence, fish barrier, fish passage, migration, fish
In an attempt to develop an efficient acoustic fish fence, we have designed an infrasound source able to generate
large nearfield particle acceleration. The source generates water movements by means of two symmetrical pistons
in an air-filled cylinder with 21 cm bore. The pistons are driven by eccentric coupling to an electric motor, with
5 cm p.p. amplitude. The piston movements are 180 out of phase. The piston reaction forces are thus opposed,
leading to vibration free operation. The submergible infrasound source is operated freely suspended in the water
mass. The emitted sound frequency is 11.8 Hz. The particle acceleration is about 0.01ms−2 at a distance of 3m,
corresponding to the threshold intensity for deterring effects of infrasound on Atlantic salmon smolts. The sound
source was employed to test the effect of intense infrasound on migrating European silver eels. Fish confined in a
tank displayed startle behaviour and prolonged stress reactions, telemetrically monitored as tachycardia, in response
to intense infrasound. The field tests were carried out in the River Imsa. A trap that catches all the descending eels
is installed near the river mouth. The trap was separated in four equal sections. During the periods with infrasound
exposure, the proportion of silver eels entering the section closest to the sound source was reduced to 43% of the
control value. In the section closest to the opposite river bank, infrasound increased the proportion of trapped eels to
144% of the control values. This shift of the migrating eels away from the infrasound source was highly significant.
Scientists Request President Piñera to Relocate Wind Farm to Protect Whales
More than forty international marine mammal specialists sent a joint statement addressed to President Sebastián Piñera, requesting the implementation of an Environmental Impact Study and the relocation of Chiloé Wind Farm project in order to avoid negative impacts on one of the largest populations of blue whales in the planet.
Santiago de Chile, 14 de Diciembre de 2011 (CCC News) – Representatives of the Cetacean Conservation Center and Ecoceanos Center delivered today a joint statement in the presidential palace La Moneda addressed to president Sebastian Piñera, regarding the wind farm project “parque eólico Chiloé”.
The letter, that has the support of 45 marine mammal specialists from around the world, expresses the concerns of the researchers “regarding the development of a large scale wind farm project to be located in the coastal borderline of the northwestern zone of Chiloe Island in Chile, an area internationally recognized as a critical habitat for a unique population of endangered blue whales”.
Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2007 Jan-Apr;93(1-3):256-79. Epub 2006 Aug 4.
Vibroacoustic disease: biological effects of infrasound and low-frequency noise explained by mechanotransduction cellular signalling.
Alves-Pereira M1, Castelo Branco NA.
At present, infrasound (0-20 Hz) and low-frequency noise (20-500 Hz) (ILFN, 0-500 Hz) are agents of disease that go unchecked. Vibroacoustic disease (VAD) is a whole-body pathology that develops in individuals excessively exposed to ILFN. VAD has been diagnosed within several professional groups employed within the aeronautical industry, and in other heavy industries. However, given the ubiquitous nature of ILFN and the absence of legislation concerning ILFN, VAD is increasingly being diagnosed among members of the general population, including children. VAD is associated with the abnormal growth of extra-cellular matrices (collagen and elastin), in the absence of an inflammatory process. In VAD, the end-product of collagen and elastin growth is reinforcement of structural integrity. This is seen in blood vessels, cardiac structures, trachea, lung, and kidney of both VAD patients and ILFN-exposed animals. VAD is, essentially, a mechanotransduction disease. Inter- and intra-cellular communication is achieved through both biochemical and mechanotranduction signalling. When the structural components of tissue are altered, as is seen in ILFN-exposed specimens, the mechanically mediated signalling is, at best, impaired. Common medical diagnostic tests, such as EKG, EEG, as well as many blood chemistry analyses, are based on the mal-function of biochemical signalling processes. VAD patients typically present normal values for these tests. However, when echocardiography, brain MRI or histological studies are performed, where structural changes can be identified, all consistently show significant changes in VAD patients and ILFN-exposed animals. Frequency-specific effects are not yet known, valid dose-responses have been difficult to identify, and large-scale epidemiological studies are still lacking.
originally posted by: ElectricUniverse
Jrod, if you do not know how to make a concise and intelligent argument based on empirical evidence do not participate in the thread.
World Council for Nature
15 July 2014
To the government of Denmark,
Allow me to bring your attention to several press releases by our organisation, the World Council for Nature. Press releases that have been picked up by numerous news media around the world, and which cast an unfavourable light on the Kingdom of Denmark.”
The first release draws attention to the 1,600 stillbirths of mink puppies, many exhibiting deformities, which occurred this year at a long-established mink farm which has wind turbines as new neighbours. The second quotes the mink farmer complaining that, “when the wind blows from the South West (where the wind turbines are), mother minks attack their own puppies.” And the third relates the closing of a plant nursery because its female employees complain of irregularities in their menstrual cycles, including unusual bleeding, since the installation of wind turbines nearby. The Danish media had already reported these tragic news, in the following articles:
As far as we were able to find out, the response of your government to these health warnings has been to ignore them. When they were brought to the attention of your Minister of Health, Nick Hækkerup, by Member of Parliament Karina Adsbøl at a hearing on the health effects of wind turbines, Mr. Hækkerup turned a deaf ear to the matter: VIDEO Karina Adsbøl
Mystery of elephant infrasounds revealed
Date: August 3, 2012
Source: University of Vienna
An international team of voice researchers and cognitive biologists provides new insights into the production of elephant communication. The so-called "infrasounds", i.e. sounds with pitches below the range of human hearing, are found to be produced with the same physical mechanism as human speech or singing.
Elephants can communicate using very low frequency sounds, with pitches below the range of human hearing. These low-frequency sounds, termed "infrasounds," can travel several kilometers, and provide elephants with a "private" communication channel that plays an important role in elephants' complex social life. Their frequencies are as low as the lowest notes of a pipe organ.
Although the sounds themselves have been studied for many years, it has remained unclear exactly how elephant infrasounds are made. One possibility, favored by some scientists, is that the elephants tense and relax the muscles in their larynx (or "voice box") for each pulse of sound. This mechanism, similar to cats purring, can produce sounds as low in pitch as desired, but the sounds produced are generally not very powerful.
The evidence of adverse health effects from wind turbines has been mounting for years. Let’s note the independent research of Nina Pierpont, M.D. (Johns Hopkins), Ph.D. (Princeton University), who described in detail the symptoms she uncovered through interviewing windfarm victims. (Dr. Pierpont published her 300-page report as, “Wind Turbine Syndrome: A Report on a Natural Experiment,” 2009) (4).
We must add to this the widely available, published work of Dr. Alec Salt and colleagues at the Cochlear Fluids Research Lab, Washington University School of Medicine (St. Louis, Missouri). Professor Salt has demonstrated that infrasound produced by wind turbines can indeed dys-regulate inner ear function, triggering the cascade of symptoms documented by Dr. Pierpont. Infrasound can readily do this, despite the fact it cannot be heard audibly. For decades the wind industry has clung to the fallacy that, “If you can’t hear it, it can’t hurt you.” Salt, a professor of Otolaryngology, has demolished that myth.
originally posted by: jrod
a reply to: ElectricUniverse
Can you imagine if this much scrutiny was given to the oil industry?
Fracking never should have been given a Clean Water Act exemption. The EPA has chosen their side.
originally posted by: ElectricUniverse
a reply to: Mianeye
So, are you saying that as long as they die for green projects it is ok?
Remember that more and more green projects such as wind farms are being built each year. This means that the deaths and disturbance of species that use Earth's magnetic field, as well as those that use the electric field in flowers and other animals to gather food will continue to increase, since it is okay for these species to die for "green causes".
I am asking because that seems to be the implication you are making.
Adverse health effects of industrial wind turbines
Roy D. Jeffery, MD FCFP⇑
Family physician in the Northeastern Manitoulin Family Health Team in Little Current, Ont.
Correspondence: Dr Roy D. Jeffery, Northeastern Manitoulin Family Health Team, Box 549, Little Current, ON P0P 1K0; e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Retired pharmacist and a former Editor-in-Chief of the Compendium of Pharmaceutical Specialties.
Brett Horner, CMA
Canadian family physicians can expect to see increasing numbers of rural patients reporting adverse effects from exposure to industrial wind turbines (IWTs). People who live or work in close proximity to IWTs have experienced symptoms that include decreased quality of life, annoyance, stress, sleep disturbance, headache, anxiety, depression, and cognitive dysfunction. Some have also felt anger, grief, or a sense of injustice. Suggested causes of symptoms include a combination of wind turbine noise, infrasound, dirty electricity, ground current, and shadow flicker.1 Family physicians should be aware that patients reporting adverse effects from IWTs might experience symptoms that are intense and pervasive and might feel further victimized by a lack of caregiver understanding.