a reply to: undo
that this text dated tothe time of Sneferu indicates that most of the Pessimistic
Texts were composed in this king‘s reign or shortly thereafter.
As a contemporary of the Exodus, Sneferu cannot have beenruler of the quiescent and placid land so often portrayed in the
textbooks. We are told that, ―The founder of the FourthDynasty was … a considerable warrior,‖(A.H. Gardiner ―New
Literary Works from
Egypt‖, Journal of Egyptian
Archaeology 1 (1914) 100-16) and his martial exploits sawhim engage the enemies of Egypt on all three frontiers.
According to Velikovsky, the departure of the Hebrew slavescoincided with the arrival in Egypt of a horde of Amalekitesfrom the Arabian Desert,
uprooted by the same catastrophe.The Book of Exodus tells us how shortly after their departurefrom the Land of the Nile, the Israelites were attacked
by theAmalekites at Rephidim. (Exodus, 17:8). The attack upon thetraumatized Israelites gave rise to an enduring animosity between the two peoples.
Velikovsky believed the Amalekites, an Arab tribe, to be thenotorious and feared Hyksos, whose conquest of Egypt waslong told and lamented. But these
tribes did not conquer the Nile Kingdom. They may well have entered Egypt to plunder, but their sojourn there was short-lived. They were quicklydriven
from the Delta by the new pharaoh and pushedeastwards. Sneferu records his victory on an inscription at
Wadi Maghara, in the Sinai Peninsula, where the nomad foes
are known simply as the ―sand
dwellers.‖ (W. StevensonSmith, ―The Old Kingdom in Egypt and the Beginning of theFirst Intermediate Period,‖ in The Cambridge Ancient
History, Vol. 1, part 2 (3rd ed) p. 167) Attempts by Nubians
and Libyans to take advantage of Egypt‘s weakness
(mentioned also by Neferty) were met with equal vigor.
The epoch that began with Sneferu was afterwards regardedas a Golden Age, the classical period of Egyptian civilization;the epoch that all later
generations sought to emulate. Sneferuwas seen as a paragon, a veritable Messiah (not unlike theJewish opinion of Moses). His exalted status was
his royal titles: the name Sneferu means ―the Gladdener‖,
whilst his Horus name Neb-maat impli
es ―Lord in Truth‖.Sneferu ―was revered throughout the length of Egyptian
history; his reign was always regarded as one of the high points of the Egyptian Golden Age. Virtually uniquelyamongst the Kings of Egypt he was
remembered by a
sobriquet; he was ‗the Beneficent King‘ and his cult wassustained down to Ptolemaic time.…‖(Michael Rice, Egypt‘s
Making (London, 1990) p. 197) Why Sneferu should have been recalled with such fondness is a mystery to conventionalhistorians, though for us it would
be a mystery were he not.
The events at the Sea of Passage, when the pharaoh and hisarmy were drowned, is generally regarded as little more than amyth. Yet a similar tale is
told in the Westcar Papyrus. Thisdescribes how a bored King Sneferu seeks some diversion bysailing on the lake in the palace gardens. A crew of
servant-girls (goddesses?) row for the king, and one of these loses her hair ornament in the water. Before the voyage can continue,
therefore, the magician Djadjaemankh is required to ―turn back‖ or ―part‖ the waters to reveal the ornament, which is
found lying on a potsherd at the bottom of the lake. (W.Stevenson Smith, loc cit. p. 168).
The above was obviously not a precise equivalent of the storyof the parting waters of Yam Suf, as found in the Book of Exodus. Nevertheless, it is
clear that the wondrous event of the sea waters parting could not have but been incorporatedinto Egyptian legend. Though the Egyptians did not
benefitfrom the incident, as an unprecedented divine miracle, it couldscarcely be ignored. The boat which Sneferu uses is evidently
symbolic of the vessel employed by Egypt‘s great gods, and
the connection with the ship-like Ark of the Covenant, whichthe fleeing Israelites carried before them on their journeysafter traversing the Sea of
Passage, should not be ignored.
--------The Story of the Green Jewel
Sneferu was one day disconsolate and weary. He wandered about the palace with desire to be cheered, nor was there aught to take the gloom from his
mind. He caused his chief scribe to be brought before him, and said: "I would fain have entertainment, but cannot find any in this place."
-Sneferu: c. 2613-2589
The scribe said: "Thy Majesty should go boating on the lake, and let the rowers be the prettiest girls in your harem. It will delight your heart
to see them splashing the water where the birds dive and to gaze upon the green shores and the flowers and trees. I myself will go with you."
The king consented, and twenty virgins who were fair to behold went into the boat, and they rowed with oars of ebony which were decorated with
gold. His Majesty took pleasure in the outing, and the gloom passed from his heart as the boat went hither and thither, and the girls sang together
with sweet voices.
It chanced, as they were turning round, an oar handle brushed against the hair of the girl who was steering, and shook from it a green jewel,
which fell into the water. She lifted up her oar and stopped singing, and the others grew silent and ceased rowing.
Said Sneferu: "Do not pause; let us go on still farther."
The girls said: "She who steers has lifted her oar."
Said Sneferu to her: "Why have you lifted your oar?"
"Alas, I have lost my green jewel she said it has fallen into the lake."
Sneferu said: "I will give you another; let us go on."
The girl pouted and made answer: "I would rather have my own green jewel again than any other."
His Majesty said to the chief scribe: "I am given great enjoyment by this novelty; indeed my mind is much refreshed as the girls row me up and
down the lake. Now one of them has lost her green jewel, which has dropped into the water, and she wants it back again and will not have another to
The chief scribe at once muttered a spell. Then by reason of his magic words the waters of the lake were divided like a lane. He went down and found
the green jewel which the girl had lost, and came back with it to her. When he did that, he again uttered words of power, and the waters came together
as they were before.
The king was well pleased, and when he had full enjoyment with the rowing upon the lake he returned to the palace. He gave gifts to the chief
scribe, and everyone wondered at the marvel which he had accomplished.
Such was Khafra's tale of the green jewel, and King Khufu commanded that offerings should be laid in the tombs of Sneferu and his chief scribe, who
was a great magician.
Next Prince Hordadef stood before the king, and he said: "Your Majesty has heard tales regarding the wonders performed by magicians in other
days, [ ] but I can bring forth a worker of marvels who now lives in the kingdom."
King Khufu said: "And who is he, my son?"
You are right about trying to find a timeline for Egypt and why egyptologists are struggling to peice of Dynasties together.
Chances are the old and new kingdoms were fairly close in sucession.
As i said before Egypt has been resettled and abandoned many times.
Its very likely the patriarticle figures in the bible were Alexandrian interpritations of the former dynasties that remained.
All leads backthere