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U.S. Navy says it can now convert seawater into fuel.
US experts have found out how to extract carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas from seawater.
Then, using a catalytic converter, they transformed them into a fuel by a gas-to-liquids process. They hope the fuel will not only be able to power ships, but also planes.
Advantages Of Geothermal Energy
As our reliance on fossil fuels have started to increase, geothermal energy is seen as the new source of power generation by digging out the heat stored inside the earth. Though not used fully due to factors such as location and high costs but in the years to come when fossil fuels would start to diminish, it will turn out to be the cheapest source of power generation. Geothermal energy suffers from its own advantages and disadvantages as described below.
Advantages of Geothermal Energy:
1. Significant Cost Saving : Geothermal energy generally involves low running costs since it saves 80% costs over fossil fuels and no fuel is used to generate the power. Since, no fuel is require so costs for purchasing, transporting and cleaning up plants is quite low.
2. Reduce Reliance on Fossil Fuels : Dependence on fossil fuels decreases with the increase in the use of geothermal energy. With the sky-rocketing prices of oil, many countries are pushing companies to adopt these clean sources of energy. Burning of fossil fuels releases greenhouse gases which are responsible for global warming
3. No Pollution : This is one of the main advantage of using geothermal energy since it does not create any pollution and help in creating clean environment. Being the renewable source of energy, geothermal energy has helped in reducing global warming and pollution. Moreover, Geothermal systems does not create any pollution as it releases some gases from deep within the earth which are not very harmful to the environment
4. Direct Use : Since ancient times, people having been using this source of energy for taking bath, heating homes, preparing food and today this is also used for direct heating of homes and offices. This makes geothermal energy cheaper and affordable. Although the initial investment is quite steep but in the long run with huge cost saving it proves quite useful
5. Job Creation and Economic Benefits : Government of various countries are investing hugely in creation of geothermal energy which on other hand has created more jobs for the local people
Though above said advantages prove that geothermal energy has big capability in itself in creating clean and safe environment and also it is an excellent source of cheap, reliable, simple, clean and renewable power but it also suffers from few drawbacks which is why it is not being utilized everywhere to its full capability. Here look at some of the disadvantages of geothermal energy.
- See more at: www.conserve-energy-future.com...
A relatively low-cost means of converting carbon dioxide into methanol has been developed by researchers from Stanford University, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, and the Technical University of Denmark.
Methanol is used for a number of different purposes, primarily though, as a fuel, in the production of many important adhesives and solvents, and in the production of plastics. It’s been suggested by researchers in some fields that methanol could be used as a replacement for gasoline (at least partially) — despite its corrosivity — with only minimal adjustments to vehicle design.
Artist's rendering of the nickel-gallium active site, which synthesizes hydrogen and carbon dioxide into methanol. Nickel atoms are light grey, gallium atoms are dark grey, and oxygen atoms are red. Image Credit: Jens Hummelshoj/SLAC
The new low-cost conversion method is all down to the discovery of a new nickel-gallium catalyst — one that converts hydrogen and carbon dioxide into methanol with fewer side-products than the conventional catalysts.
“Methanol is processed in huge factories at very high pressures using hydrogen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide from natural gas,” stated study lead author Felix Studt, a staff scientist at SLAC. “We are looking for materials than can make methanol from clean sources under low-pressure conditions, while generating low amounts of carbon monoxide.”
Ultimately, according to Studt, the goal is a process that can be scaled up to the industrial level while remaining “nonpolluting and carbon neutral”.
Read more at cleantechnica.com...
Biodegradable Plastic Option From Shrimp Shells
When treated with sodium hydroxide chitin turns to chitosan, a polysaccharide used medically, for water filtration and to enhance plant growth. Somewhat ironically it has also been shown to help plants fight fungal infections. Despite its variety of uses commercial consumption of chitosan does not get close to matching the available supply of chitin from waste shrimp shells.
The Institute's substitute for plastic bags is a product made by combining chitosan with a protein from silk, which has been named Shrilk. In Macromolecular Materials and Engineering the Institute's Dr Javier Fernandez and Dr Donald Ingber describe their process for producing Shrilk and 3D printing the product into a chess set. "You can make virtually any 3D form with impressive precision from this type of chitosan," says Fernandez
"Our scalable manufacturing method shows that chitosan, which is readily available and inexpensive, can serve as a viable bioplastic that could potentially be used instead of conventional plastics for numerous industrial applications." says Ingber.
Subtle differences in the manufacturing process can leave the Shrilk too brittle for most uses, but with experimentation Fernandez and Inber were able to detail a reliable method for what they wanted. Adding wood flour removed the problem of shrinkage which would have ruled their product out for some purposes.
Most importantly, the pair claim Shrilk breaks down within two weeks in the environment, and even serves as an effective stimulant for plant growth, a assertion they support with the below video of a blackeye pea in soil with Shrilk added.
Read more at www.iflscience.com...