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The Tale of The Ship-Wrecked Sailor is an epic tale written on papyrus around the year 2000 BCE, during the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. Contemporary with the rise of the Cult of Osiris and the inscribing of the Coffin Texts, the Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor tells a similar story of redemption.
The basic form of the story is very simple: a sailor returns home from an adventure in which he was lost at sea and tells the tale to his `master’ so that this master may unfold to the pharaoh what happened. In explaining to his master where he has been the past six months, the sailor tells of an amazing island on which he meets a great talking serpent who calls himself the Lord of Punt. As the Land of Punt had been a well-known partner in trade with Egypt since the 4th Dynasty it is interesting to see it portayed mythically as an island of riches and magic from which the sailor is rescued (after being helped by the serpent) and returned home a richer man.
Since the actual land of Punt did, in fact, finally vanish in the minds of the Egyptians into mythology and legend, it is tempting to speculate that the Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor was the beginning of this process but, in fact, there is no hard evidence that this is so. More probably, the Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor was first written long after Punt had been accorded mythical status. The following translation of the text is from W.K. Flinders Petrie, 1892.
THE DAYS BEFORE SHEBA
Historians might like to insist that little is known about the founding of the Aksumite Kingdom, but ask the average Ethiopian and they’ll tell you something very different. Aksum, they will say, was founded by none other than the Great-Grandson of Noah, Aksumawi. His new kingdom flourished for a while, but one day Wainaba, a giant snake, 170 cubits long, attacked the city, killed the king and then ruled for 400 dark years. The snake was a foul tempered and dangerous creature and in order to placate him the people of Aksum fed him a diet of milk and virgins. Eventually salvation came in the form of a man named Angabo who, crossing the Red Sea from the land of the Sabeans, offered to kill the serpent in exchange for the throne. The people of Aksum agreed, but rather than fighting the serpent as the Aksumites expected, Angabo proved himself wise and fed the serpent a goat laced in poison.
The kingdom quickly recovered, Angabo married and was borne a daughter. That daughter was named Makeda and on her father’s death she became the woman we today know as the Queen of Sheba.
Read more: www.lonelyplanet.com...
Oral tradition in the legend of Wagadu says that after Cisse's death, his two sons, Khine and Dyabe, disagreed about who would become the successor. They fought and Khine won the battle. Dyabe, humiliated, made an accord with a black snake with seven heads named Bida. Dyabe promised to sacrifice a virgin to the snake once every year in return for victory over his brother. He fulfilled his promise to Bida until his death. The wealth of Ghana is depicted by this story, as the Soninke believe that there were rains of gold due to the annual virgin girl sacrifice to the black snake. Another clarification to the prosperity of the empire was its gold mines located in Kumbi Saleh, the imperial capital. This place became an important commercial centre. The existence of camels facilitated the transport of gold and other products, such as slaves, salt and copper, textiles, beads, and finished goods, with the rest of the world. - See more at: www.abovetopsecret.com...
When 19th-century scholars and enthusiasts first saw the Book of the Faiyum, some thought it represented the legendary Egyptian labyrinth, described by ancient Greek and Roman authors including Herodotus, Strabo, and Pliny the Elder. Egyptologists today, however, recognize the maplike features of the papyrus as a depiction of Lake Moeris and the canal that feeds it. This bird’s-eye view of the region is only visible once the entire composition is revealed—a feat that requires a large display area. Most ancient Egyptians would have encountered the Book of the Faiyum one short section at a time; readers often held papyrus rolls in one hand, while using the other to unroll the text across their laps.
The Book of the Faiyum offers a window onto cultural, intellectual, and religious life in a unique ancient Egyptian place. Over the course of many centuries, the ancient Egyptians depicted the gods and myths seen in the Book of the Faiyum countless times. Stories of divine creation and the sun god’s nightly regeneration, featured prominently in the book, frequently appeared in ancient Egyptian art. The Book of the Faiyum, however, creates a local context for universal narratives, tailoring them to suit the Faiyum’s specific history and geography. The story of the Ogdoad, eight primeval gods who took the form of snakes and frogs, provides a good example of this. One section of the Book of the Faiyum illustrates these gods in an act of creation: creating Lake Moeris by digging it out with their own hands. The complex, layered imagery of the Book of the Faiyum continues to challenge scholars today. This exhibition encourages reflection on the mysteries surrounding the Book of the Faiyum, including why it was made and for whom.
originally posted by: Spider879
This is among my favorite dragon/serpentine slaying figures the following St.Georges figures may well reflect the attempt at stomping out of serpentine worship.
Thuban (α Draconis) was the northern pole star from 3942 BC, when it moved farther north than Theta Boötis, until 1793 BC. The Egyptian Pyramids were designed to have one side facing north, with an entrance passage designed so that Thuban would be visible at night. Due to the effects of precession, it will once again be the pole star around the year 21000 AD. It is a blue-white giant star of magnitude 3.7, 309 light-years from Earth. The traditional name of Alpha Draconis, Thuban, means "head of the serpent".
Ursa Minor and Ursa Major were related by the Greeks to the myth of Callisto and Arcas. However, in a variant of the story, in which it is Boötes that represents Arcas, Ursa Minor represents a dog. This is the older tradition, which sensibly explains both the length of the tail and the obsolete alternate name of Cynosura (the dog's tail) for Polaris, the North Star.
Previously, Ursa Minor was considered just seven close stars, mythologically regarded as sisters. In early Greek mythology, the seven stars of the Little Dipper were the Hesperides, daughters of Atlas. Together with the nearby constellations of Boötes, Ursa Major, and Draco, it may have formed the origin of the myth of the apples of the Hesperides, which forms part of the Labours of Hercules.[original research?] Ursa Minor with its modern associations was invented by Thales of Miletus in approximately 600 BCE, from what had previously represented the wings of Draco, the Dragon. He did so out of a desire to commemorate the location of the North Celestial Pole, then near Beta and Gamma Ursae Minoris.
In Hungarian mythology the constellation is called 'Little Goncol cart' (Göncöl szekér) after a legendary shaman. (Ursa Major is 'Big Goncol cart.') The shaman's knowledge knew no limit. He invented the cart: His nation was wandering, so the cart was the biggest gift of the Gods to the country. Legends claim he knew everything about the world. Nobody saw his death; his body simply disappeared among the stars.
Because Ursa Minor consists of seven stars, the Latin word for "North" (i.e. where Polaris points) is septentrio, from septem (seven) and triones (oxen), from seven oxen driving a plow, which the seven stars also resemble.
Hawara was dedicated to the crocodile god Souchos. The temple of Souchos in Hawara, attested from the 3rd century BC to the 2nd century AD , was either an independent construction for the main god of the Fayum, or an alternative name for the Labyrinth. Amenemhat’s funerary temple was a cult centre for Pramarres in association with other Fayum deities, especially Souchos, who is well represented in the Labyrinth statues Herodotos' story of crocodile tombs in the Labyrinth (II 148) is confirmed by the excavations of Petrie , and Brugsch and Von Levetzau. Middle Kingdom inscriptions found in the Labyrinth area identify the crocodile god worshipped at Hawara as ‘Sobek of Shedet’, ‘Sobek lord of Khaui’ and ’Sobek lord of Bau
The unspecified ‘Temple of Hawara’ (P.Chic.Haw. 9; 239 BC; P.Hawara Lüdd. III; 233 BC) is no doubt the main temple of the village. Several prophets of Souchos are linked to this temple (P. Zauzich 17; 62/61 BC). It is not clear, however, whether this was an independent temple of Souchos or the Labyrinth itself, where Pramarres, Souchos and some other deities were worshipped
The name "Khidr" is taken colloquially (and sometimes within more scholarly literature) to mean "the Green One" or "the Verdant One" in Arabic, however, this definition is only a popular etymology with no linguistic connection between Khidr and al-akhdar, the Arabic word for green. Another opinion refers to a short or Arabized form of Hasisatra (Atrahasis). Hasisatra is the nickname of the "Sumerian Noah" Utnapishtim.
Although there are many common or similar elements between the Gilgamesh epic and the Alexander romance in which 'Khidr' plays a role, Hasisatra is not the prototype of Khidr. Khidr originally comes from Ugaritic mythology and his prototype is Kothar-wa-Khasis (Chusor in Greek), the god of smith and builder;
Khidr originally comes from Ugaritic mythology and his prototype is Kothar-wa-Khasis (Chusor in Greek), the god of smith and builder
Khonsu (alternately Chonsu, Khensu, Khons, Chons or Khonshu) is an Ancient Egyptian god whose main role was associated with the moon. His name means "traveller" and this may relate to the nightly travel of the moon across the sky. Along with Thoth he marked the passage of time. Khonsu was instrumental in the creation of new life in all living creatures. At Thebes he formed part of a family triad with Mut as his mother and Amun his father. At Kom Ombo he was worshipped as son of Sobek and Hathor
Nun, also spelled Nu , oldest of the ancient Egyptian gods and father of Re, the sun god. Nun’s name means “primeval waters,” and he represented the waters of chaos out of which Re-Atum began creation. Nun’s qualities were boundlessness, darkness, and the turbulence of stormy waters; these qualities were personified separately by pairs of deities. Nun, his female counterpart, Naunet, and three further pairs together formed the Ogdoad (group of eight gods) of Hermopolis. Various Egyptian creation myths retain the image of the emergence of a primeval hillock formed of mud churned from the chaotic waters of Nun. Since it was believed that the primeval ocean continued to surround the ordered cosmos, the creation myth was reenacted each day as the sun god rose from the waters of chaos. Nun was also thought to continue to exist as the source of the annual flooding of the Nile River.
Nu was shown usually as male but also had aspects that could be represented as female or male. Nunet (/ˈnuːˌnɛt/; also spelt Naunet) is the female aspect, which is the name Nu with a female gender ending. The male aspect, Nun, is written with a male gender ending. As with the primordial concepts of the Ogdoad, Nu's male aspect was depicted as a frog, or a frog-headed man. In Ancient Egyptian art, Nun also appears as a bearded man, with blue-green skin, representing water. Naunet is represented as a snake or snake-headed woman.
Petrie interpreted the enormous artificial stone plateau he discovered at Hawara (304m by 244m), as the foundation of the labyrinth and concluded, that the building itself was totally demolished, as a stone quarry in the Ptolemaic period.
The mission of the Mataha-expedition was, besides preservation, to question this theory. On account, the foundation impenetrated by early expeditions, could be the roof of the labyrinth, described by Strabo as a great plain of stone.
The conclusion of the Hawara geophysic-survey is, however, still waiting to be internationally released by Dr. Zahi Hawass, the Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities (Egypt). Since the release of the scan results at the Ghent University public lecture, Dr Zahi Hawass requested to stop communicating our results, intimidating the Mataha Expedition team members with Egyptian National Security sanctions. After 2 years of patience we decided June 2010, to oppose all cunning and deceit by posting the conclusion on the labyrinthofegypt.com website:
The Mataha – expedition geophysic research confirms the presence of archaeological features at the labyrinth area south of the Hawara pyramid of Amenemhet III. These features covering an underground area of several hectares, have the prominent signature of vertical walls on the geophysical results. The vertical walls with an average thickness of several meters, are connected to shape nearly closed rooms, which are interpreted to be huge in number.
The Labyrinth data are acquired mainly from 2 scanned surfaces at the labyrinth area south of the pyramid. One scan survey of 150m by 100m on the right site of the Bahr Wahbi canal, and one on the left site (80m by 100m). Two considerations regarding the conclusion. First, seen the survey provided only two big puzzles; the total size and shape of the labyrinth can not yet been concluded. Secondly, the data of the labyrinth are accurate, because of the exceptional dimensions of the structure, but groundwater affected the consistency of the survey. The partial defacement of the data is due to the high salinity of the shallow subsurface water and the seasonal fluctuation of this level.
Underneath this upper zone, below the artificial stone surface appears (in spite of the turbid effect of the groundwater) at the depth of 8 to 12 meters a grid structure of gigantic size made of a very high resistivity material like granite stone. This states the presence of a colossal archaeological feature below the labyrinth “foundation” zone of Petrie, which has to be reconsidered as the roof of the still existing labyrinth. The conclusion of the geo-archaeological expedition counters in a scientific way the idea that the labyrinth was destructed as a stone quary in Ptolemaic times and validates the authenticity of the classical author reports. The massive grid structure of the labyrinth is also out of angle by 20° to 25° from the Hawara pyramid
n analysis shifting the contemporary idea of the labyrinth as funerary temple and its supposed construction age, but on the other hand it hardens Herodotus accuracy, who described the nearby pyramid to be at the corner of the labyrinth. It might even be considered that the remains of the labyrinth run unaffectedly underneath the canal, which crosses the total Hawara area. Like the scanned Labyrinth sections on both sides of Bahr Wahbi canal have similar and parallel grids on the geophysical results
Pomponius Mela (1st century AD): One passage in his chorographia, Book I, 9, 56.
The building of Psammetich, the Labyrinth, includes within the circuit of one unbroken wall 1000 houses and 12 palaces, and is built of marble as well as being roofed with the same material. It has one descending way into it, and contains within almost innumerable paths, which have many convolutions twisting hither and thither. These paths, however, cause great perplexity both because of their continual winding and because of their porticoes which often reverse their direction, continually running through one circle after another and continually turning and retracing their steps as far as they have gone forwards with the result that the Labyrinth is fraught with confusion by reason of its perpetual meandering, though it is possible to extricate oneself.
According to the Historia Augusta, Septimius Severus 17, 4 (early 4th century AD) Septimius Severus visited the Labyrinth site during his journey in Egypt in 199-200 AD. The state of preservation of the building at that time is not clear, but its symbolic meaning and fame have remained