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Ok. Please show how nuclear testing 55 years ago can cause of dearth of ozone today.
When a nuclear charge explodes at the Earth’s surface or in the atmosphere, the shock wave vents water vapor from the troposphere to the stratosphere through tropopause. For some period (˜ 3 years) water vapor in the stratosphere and aerosol, and dust in the troposphere and stratosphere suffice for the defense of the Earth from solar radiation.
Almost the whole of the stratosphere and mesosphere consists of molecular oxygen O2 and molecular nitrogen N2. Also ozone O3 is formed in comparatively small quantities with the help of solar radiation. The first distinction is the temperature gradient: temperature grows with altitude in the stratosphere approximately from -55 degrees to O degrees and diminishes in the mesosphere, from about O degrees to -95 degrees (see Fig. 2). The second distinction consists in the different pressure and density, which are several times less in the mesosphere than in the stratosphere.
Therefore, water vapour in the troposphere (such as is formed during atmospheric nuclear tests), comes to a temperature below freezing point almost everywhere except its upper border. Thus it forms crystals having greater density than the ambient gas.
But water vapour in the mesosphere is another matter. At a pressure hundreds of times less than at atmospheric pressure at sea level, the freezing point of water vapour shifts to a vastly negative temperature without the intermediate liquid state (see Fig. 3). Therefore there exists a sizable layer spanning the higher part of the stratosphere and lower part of the mesosphere where water is in the gas state.
Therefore it has some tendency to move up in rapidly moving flows with some stirring against the background of diffusion. When it migrates, gas climbs to a temperature below freezing point, crystallizes and migrates down. There it evaporates missing the liquid state, and the process repeats. Thus, mesopause with a strongly negative temperature of around -95 degrees prevents water vapor leaving beyond the upper bound of the mesosphere.
Gamma-rays are the most energetic form of light and are produced by the hottest regions of the universe. They are also produced by such violent events as supernova explosions or the destruction of atoms, and by less dramatic events, such as the decay of radioactive material in space.
A Gamma-ray burst could wipe out all living species on the planet Earth at any time with no warning and destroy the ozone layer in the process. There is no protection for the planet from this fate.
The process of the gamma rays knocking electrons out of the atoms in the mid-stratosphere causes this region of the atmosphere to become an electrical conductor due to ionization, a process which blocks the production of further electromagnetic signals and causes the field strength to saturate at about 50,000 volts per metre.
Concentrations of radioactive particles injected into the high layer of the atmosphere by activities like nuclear testing are larger than expected. This discovery is reported in a paper published in Nature Communications this week. The work also provides evidence that volcanic eruptions can redistribute the particles from higher to lower atmospheric layers, bringing them closer to Earth.
Scientific American corresponded with science historian James Fleming of Colby College in Maine, author of Fixing the Sky: The Checkered History of Weather and Climate Control
Geo-scale engineering projects were conducted by both the U.S. and the Soviet Union between 1958 and 1962 that had nothing to do with countering or ameliorating climate change. Starting with the [U.S.'s] 1958 Argus A-bomb explosions in space and ending with the 1962 Starfish Prime H-bomb test, the militaries of both nations sought to modify the global environment for military purposes.
There are roughly 2000 thunderstorms in progress around the world at any one time producing about 30 to 100 cloud to ground flashes each second or about five million flashes a day. But thunderstorms produce much more than just lightning bolts. Heat from lightning flashes produces 100 million tonnes of nitrogen fertilizer every year. Five times hotter than the sun, every 10,000,000 volts of a lightning bolt creates new molecules, such as NOx - which is then deposited into the stratosphere where it can affect other compounds such as ozone. Thunderheads also deliver vast quantities of water vapour into the stratosphere - the greatest 'green-house gas' on earth.
Stratospheric water vapor concentrations decreased by about 10% after the year 2000. Here we show that this acted to slow the rate of increase in global surface temperature over 2000–2009 by about 25% compared to that which would have occurred due only to carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.
On the contrary. The mechanism is quite well explained.
Ozone, in turn, forms in the lower atmosphere only if there are sufficient nitrogen oxides there. Large amounts of nitrogen oxide compounds are produced in particular by intensive lightning over land. However, the air masses in the tropical West Pacific were not exposed to any continental tropical storms for a very long time during their transport across the giant ocean. And the lightning activity in storms over the ocean is relatively small. At the same time the lifetime of atmospheric ozone is short due to the exceptionally warm and moist conditions in the tropical West Pacific.
Westerly wind anomalies are present over the western tropical Pacific while trade winds are near-average along the equator in the eastern tropical Pacific (see anomaly map for the 5 days ending 23 March). A reversal of the trade winds (i.e. winds becoming westerly in the equatorial region) in the western Pacific has extended east to the Date Line; this is the first time this has occurred since the 2009–10 El Niño.
Actually, the El Nino tradewind reversals started just this past January. The reversals are transient, coming and going over some areas for a matter of days or weeks for few months as part of ENSO (except particularly strong events when it can last over a longer period of time). For the majority of the time the easterlies cross the entire tropical Pacific . You can find the wind indices for the region here: www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov...
So, do air parcels cross the Pacific on their way west? Trade wind anomalies say no.
Actually no, they rely mostly on sea surface temperatures and winds aloft to make those predictions.
In fact I'm thinking that's one of the ways that researchers tell whether or not a hurricane/cyclone will weaken or intensify.
"Oceanic areas also experience [a dearth of lightning]," Christian says. "People living on some of the islands in the Pacific don't describe much lightning in their language." The ocean surface doesn't warm up as much as land does during the day because of water's higher heat capacity. Heating of low-lying air is crucial for storm formation, so the oceans don't experience as many thunderstorms.
Of course there are. That does not mean they are frequent or that lightning is. The above link has a chart showing the global distribution of lightning. It's sparse in equatorial oceans, including in the region of the hyroxyl hole.
Are there tropical storms in this area?
There is no reason to think it has not always occurred. It's simply the first time there has been such data for the region.
Nothing shows it has always been here. Nothing shows that there is understanding of how this happened.
Atmospheric nuclear tests got it into the stratosphere and there it stays.
Looks like this current 'new' hole is sitting right there near the Marshall Islands so that's probably the best theory yet.
No. Nuclear testing was not about improving communication. It was about improving weapons.
But it was all for a good cause - improving communication
Those "dry slots" are transient, not permanent. They move. Take a look at the water vapor imagery your quote mentions.
If that is the case, if jets are adding humungous amounts of water vapor, why haven't water vapor levels risen in the past decade? Jets don't seem to be having much of an effect, do they?
Then why, with all those jets flying over Colorado, doesn't water vapor just stay there and accumulate? Since it lasts "several months, several decades, millenia" and the stratosphere is "static?"
Overall, the distribution of stratospheric water vapour is determined by the interaction of radiation, chemistry, and dynamics. Considering the sources, water vapour enters the stratosphere through vertical transport in the (tropical) tropopause region and is photochemically produced in the upper stratosphere through the oxidation of methane. The only sink of water vapour in the upper atmosphere is through photolysis by Lyman-a with its efficiency increasing with altitude in the mesosphere.
Photolysis of water vapor and carbon dioxide produce hydroxyl and atomic oxygen, respectively, that, in turn, produce oxygen in small concentrations. This process produced oxygen for the early atmosphere before photosynthesis became dominant.
Oxygen increased in stages, first through photolysis (Figure 1) of water vapor and carbon dioxide by ultraviolet energy and, possibly, lightning
once sufficient oxygen had accumulated in the stratosphere, it was acted on by sunlight to form ozone
And what does air traffic have to do with the hydroxl hole in the tropical west Pacific anyway?
The ice crystals form inside the engines during convective thunderstorms at high altitude, which occur rarely but almost always at tropical latitudes.
That image is at 8 kilometers/26,000 feet, looking down over mid-latitudes.
That's interesting. Let's look more closely at that chart. The altitude we're most likely to be concerned with is 16-18 km even though that's quite a bit higher than most jets fly. But even using that altitude, as has been pointed out, there has been a slight overall rise since 1980. But there is that troublesome drop from 2001 to 2005. It did increase a bit between 2005 and 2007 but again shows a decline after that (which you didn't mention). The next level, 18-20 km, shows a similar pattern. If jets are dumping humungous amounts of water vapor into the stratosphere (enough to have some detrimental effect), why the decreases? Why the big drop after 2000? Why the drop after 2007? Why were water vapor levels lower in 2010 than they were in 2000?
Stratospheric water vapor levels are rising.
Yes, it did. What does what happens in the stratopause (at an altitude of around 165,000 feet) have to do with what happens at the bottom of the stratosphere?
A previous link I put up explained the stratosphere/mesosphere water vapor interaction pretty clearly.
What effect does lightning have on water vapor levels? What effect does sunlight have on water vapor levels?
You, yourself, I think, previously mentioned the lightning link. All that's left is sunlight.
The only sink of water vapour in the upper atmosphere is through photolysis by Lyman-a with its efficiency increasing with altitude in the mesosphere.
Yes, they do. But the hole is in the lower atmosphere, the troposphere. Aren't you complaining about the effects of jets on the stratosphere, above the tropopause? Also, as pointed out, jet emissions are pretty much O3 neutral. I don't know how you come to the conclusion that jets may have something to do with the hydroxl hole in the tropical west Pacific.
Don't flights go through there? Or is this hole a no-fly zone? Isn't this the area where the ice crystal problems happen?
Are you saying the tropopause is anomalously cold in the tropical west Pacific? Do you have some data on that?
There can't be an elevator to the stratosphere if the tropopause is anomalously cold. And an elevator could use one of those tropical storms with an anvil cloud.
In comparing lightning activity with hurricane wind speed, the researchers found a correlation between the two. The surprise, Yair said, was that lightning activity often peaked hours before winds reached their strongest point.
A sudden surge in lightning activity along with wild fluctuations in a storm’s electric field may help predict tornado formation a local researcher has found.
1) We were talking about the tropospheric hole over the west Pacific, not the stratosphere. Remember?
No. Nuclear testing was not about improving communication. It was about improving weapons.
Which is in the troposphere, from the surface to the tropopause. To refresh your memory, this is what I asked about you comment regarding the tropical west Pacific "hole" and nuclear testing:
We were talking about "an elevator to the stratosphere" i.e. the Pacific newhole.
You have not provided such a mechanism.
Can you provide the mechanism whereby atmospheric nuclear testing would create a dearth of hydroxl which would persist for 55 years?
You thought wrong. It was about developing nuclear weapons, as was underground testing. Oh, with the exception of Plowshare, a really stupid idea cooked up by Edward Teller, but it had nothing to do with communications either.
Really? I thought atmospheric testing was all about communicating radiation along magnetic field lines to conjugate points.