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Neolithic discovery: why Orkney is the centre of ancient Britain
Long before the Egyptians began the pyramids, Neolithic man built a vast temple complex at the top of what is now Scotland. Robin McKie visits the astonishing Ness of Brodgar
This is the temple complex of the Ness of Brodgar, and its size, complexity and sophistication have left archaeologists desperately struggling to find superlatives to describe the wonders they found there. "We have discovered a Neolithic temple complex that is without parallel in western Europe
The people of the Neolithic – the new Stone Age – were the first farmers in Britain, and they arrived on Orkney about 6,000 years ago. They cultivated the land, built farmsteads and rapidly established a vibrant culture, erecting giant stone circles, chambered communal tombs – and a giant complex of buildings at the Ness of Brodgar. The religious beliefs that underpinned these vast works is unknown, however, as is the purpose of the Brodgar temples.
"We need to turn the map of Britain upside down when we consider the Neolithic and shrug off our south-centric attitudes," says Card, now Brodgar's director of excavations. "London may be the cultural hub of Britain today, but 5,000 years ago, Orkney was the centre for innovation for the British isles. Ideas spread from this place. The first grooved pottery, which is so distinctive of the era, was made here, for example, and the first henges – stone rings with ditches round them – were erected on Orkney. Then the ideas spread to the rest of the Neolithic Britain. This was the font for new thinking at the time."
It is a view shared by local historian Tom Muir, of the Orkney Museum. "The whole text book of British archaeology for this period will have to be torn up and rewritten from scratch thanks to this place," he says.
The surrounding hills are relatively low, and a great dome of sky hangs over Brodgar, perfect for watching the setting and rising of the sun, moon and other celestial objects. (Card believes the weather on Orkney may have been warmer and clearer 4,000 to 5,000 years ago.) Cosmology would have been critical to society then, he argues, helping farmers predict the seasons – a point supported by scientists such as the late Alexander Thom, who believed that the Ring of Brodgar was an observatory designed for studying the movement of the moon.
These outposts of Neolithic astronomy, although impressive, were nevertheless peripheral, says Richards. The temple complex at the Ness of Brodgar was built to be the most important construction on the island. "The stones of Stenness, the Ring of Brodgar and the other features of the landscape were really just adjuncts to that great edifice," he says. Or as another archaeologist put it: "By comparison, everything else in the area looks like a shanty town
Equally puzzling was the fate of the complex. Around 2,300BC, roughly a thousand years after construction began there, the place was abruptly abandoned. Radiocarbon dating of animal bones suggests that a huge feast ceremony was held, with more than 600 cattle slaughtered, after which the site appears to have been decommissioned. Perhaps a transfer of power took place or a new religion replaced the old one. Whatever the reason, the great temple complex – on which Orcadians had lavished almost a millennium's effort – was abandoned and forgotten for the next 4,000 years.
www.theguardian.com...edit on Tueam3b20143America/Chicago44 by Danbones because: (no reason given)edit on Tueam3b20143America/Chicago04 by Danbones because: (no reason given)
The Phoenician Church was one of the most ancient or the original churches which came into being during the Apostolic Age. Early Church Fathers and scholars left written accounts of the valiant spirit which early Phoenician Christians maintained in their new faith. At the beginning of Christ's ministry, and later during the beginning of Apostolic evangelization, the new faith was reserved for the Jews. Nevertheless, Phoenicians of all walks of life accepted the new faith and the Church recognized them as valid Christians particular after the first council of Jerusalem.
His Holiness Pope Constantine I (708-715)
His Holiness the Pope Constantine I was born in Tyre, as was his predecessor. He took hold of his Apostolic mission in the month of March of the year 708. He completed what the Pope Sisinius had started in the restoration of the walls of Rome. He then concentrated especially on the religious and theological subjects and condemned the doctrine that claimed that Christ had one nature which is inadmissible to the belief of the Catholic Church.
Just as Emperors with Phoenician origins ruled the wide Roman Empire in its glory and majesty, so the historians tell us that religious leaders with Phoenician lineage occupied the highest ranks in the Catholic Church, and have assumed the highest responsability in the Church - The Holy See. They have ruled the universal church from the Vatican.
Historians have spoken of the first Pope from the Middle East: Anicitus, who lived in the second century. Five others in the seventh and eight centuries.
His Holiness Pope Anicitus (155-166 )
Phoenician Popes phoenicia.org... Holiness Pope Anicitus (155-166#ixzz2vkxGp2Pv
this is why the knghits templar were done in they had the cross
see Crieighton Miller's research at the vatican where he figures that out
the symbol iof the cross is in christainity because the damn thing is phonecian aryan goth...damn !
The early civilization has European Haplogroup markers, as evidenced by the burial site at Windover Bog, FLdated to 7,300 ybp.
Many of the Bog Mummy’
s skulls contained extant brain material, providing samplesfor both 14c and DNA testing.In a rapid rising ocean environment, the best long term reliable cultural systems, over time would be aquaticbased. It is a simple and reliable answer to the encroaching sea level. That is why ALL ancient world culturesseem to have a major emphasis on canal building, and aquatic management. (They all seemed to be veryefficient at engineering water based systems.)
Many post cataclysmic cultures retained the memory of the flooding devastation. On the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, they built 'mound' structures as 'high ground' retreats against the threat that high waters would riseagain to destroy their world. The Early Shell Mound Builders in Florida used sea shells as a binding agent tosand, which was their only local building material. The mixture, when heated became an early form of 'cement' or 'concrete'.
We contend that all pyramid building cultures, following the Younger-Dryas event,built pyramids for the same reason; that is; as a 'high ground' retreat from rising flood waters.The second or late period Shell Mound Builders, and Mississippi Mound Builders probably migrated in masseto Vera Cruz, Mexico around 3,600 years ago as the precursor civilization to the Zoque (Olmecs) at almost exactly the time all developing cultures changed their calendar from 360 days to 365.25 days.
Overview of Marine Sedimentation
Passive sedimentationprocesses are those in which the sediment is carried by but does not modify the normal thermohaline circulation. Examples:
Hemipelagic sedimentation, where it appears that fine sediment moves along isopycnal surfaces high in the water column. This process is poorly understood (for example, the role of internal waves in resuspending sediment, the role of squirts and jets in transporting sediment offshore and the role of biota in sediment deposition have yet to be quantified). Hemipelagic sedimentation produces a fringe of terrigenous (land-derived) deposits up to a few hundred kilometers wide around land masses. These deposits are draped uniformly over the sea floor topography
"Drift" deposition along the path of bottom currents. Prominent in the high latitude North Atlantic along the flanks or ridges. Sediment in transit to drift deposits creates a near-bottom "nepheloid layer." Paleoceanography, 9 (6), (December 1994) has a dozen papers on drift deposits.
Eolian (wind transported) sedimentation. Prominent where major wind systems cross semi-arid source areas (ephemeral lakes) or active ash-generating volcanoes. Prominent in the North Pacific (Figure MS-1), North Atlantic and Arabian Sea
The continental shelves are covered by terrigenous sediments; that is, those derived from erosion of the continents. However, little of the sediment is from current rivers; some 60-70% of the sediment on the world's shelves is relict sediment, deposited during the last ice age, when sea level was 100–120 m lower than it is now.
Sediments usually become increasingly fine with distance from the coast; sand is limited to shallow, wave-agitated waters, while silt and clays are deposited in quieter, deep water far offshore. These shelf sediments accumulate at an average rate of 30 cm/1000 years, with a range from 15–40 cm. Though slow by human standards, this rate is much faster than that for deep-sea pelagic sediments.
reply to post by Danbones
nah you're right I guess technically they didn't really need high technology. I'd like to know some details though like how did they spread information and communicate across vast distances. Did they have schools? Libraries? Science? Math? I mean they had to have some kind of intellectual infrastructure to maintain the coherence of such a vast community. Where'd they go and did they just blend back in with the rest of the world?edit on 13-3-2014 by bottleslingguy because: forgot a word. do I really need to explain that?
i have across several threads shown how this ruling atlantaen race, the phonecian aryan goths, have through phonecian popes morphed into the catholic church...
Hi Bellor my apologies for the late reply...some mucg reading and stuff to keep up.
I had noticed that that was a calander in the book of Enoch, and that had been one of the earliest influences on my thinking.
thanks for such a good link it really fits in to this thread...seamlessly
Uriel's Machine: The Prehistoric Technology That Survived the Flood is a bestselling book published in 1999 by Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas. The book's name is derived from a character of the same name in the Book of Enoch. In Knight and Lomas's interpretation of the Book of Enoch, Uriel warns Enoch about the impending flood, giving him instructions for building a form of solar observatory for the purpose of preserving advanced knowledge into a time of global disaster by teaching him the movement of the Sun against the horizon over a period of time, which Enoch then records in detail in the Book of the Courses of the Heavenly Luminaries.
In Masonic mythology there are many references to seven, which the authors speculate could refer to seven cometary fragments. These seven cometary fragments are described in the book as hitting the earth in prehistory causing tsunamis. The authors link this speculation to the work of geologists Edith and Alexander Tollmann. Their work proposes a series of meteors hitting the earth over the last 10,000 years, especially circa 7640 BC. Their evidence and counter-evidence is discussed in the article Tollmann's hypothetical bolide.
The book proposes that what the authors believe to have been stellar observatories (such as the first wooden Stonehenge) in Britain, and structures in the Boyne Valley in Ireland, show sufficient knowledge to be able to predict prescribed solar, lunar and venusian events and cycles, such as solstices and equinoxes. If rituals at Stonehenge involved stargazing, there is then the opportunity for an anomalous object to be spotted far more quickly if the cycles of observed celestial objects are known.
The authors quote textual evidence from the book of Enoch. They also note other coincidences made between Enoch and astronomy; for example, it is said he lived 365 years, which could be a reference to a year (365.25 days). It is also said[who?] that he knew what sacrifices to make during different times of the year, which is at odds with the Jewish lunar calendar.