Orkney is a paradise of the past. There are probably more ancient sites in Orkney than anywhere else in the UK, many are free entry, and most are uncrowded. Several of the most famous sites are clustered together near Loch Harray and form the Heart of Orkney World Heritage Site.
Neolithic discovery: why Orkney is the centre of ancient Britain
Long before the Egyptians began the pyramids, Neolithic man built a vast temple complex at the top of what is now Scotland. Robin McKie visits the astonishing Ness of Brodgar
The Cross of Tau, named after the Greek letter it resembles, is a form of the Christian cross symbol. It is also variously St. Anthony's Cross, Old Testament Cross, Anticipatory Cross, Cross Commissee, Egyptian Cross, Advent Cross, Croce taumata, Saint Francis's Cross, Crux Commissa.
The shape of the letter tau or T was interpreted as representing a crucifix from antiquity. The staurogram, from Greek ΣTAΥPOΣ "cross", was a tau-rho ligature used to abbreviate the Greek word for cross in very early New Testament manuscripts such as P66, P45 and P75. The tau was also considered a symbol of salvation due to the identification of the tau with the sign which in Ezechiel 9:4 was marked on the forehead of the saved ones (וְהִתְוִיתָ תָּו עַל־מִצְחֹות הָאֲנָשִׁים "set a mark (tav; after the Phoenician cross-shape ) on the forehead of the men"), or due to the tau-shaped outstretched hands of Moses in Exodus 17:11.
St. Anthony of Egypt bore a cross in the form of a tau on his cloak. The Tau Cross is most commonly used in reference to the Franciscan Order and Saint Francis of Assisi, who adopted it as his personal coat of arms after hearing Pope Innocent III talk about the Tau symbol. It is now used as a symbol of the Franciscan Order.
I. VISION OF EDEN AND ITS SERPENT-PRIESTESS AND PRE-ADAMITE PEOPLE:
Pre-Adamite Matriarch of Eden, the Serpent-Priestess and her Weirds and People.
The Three Fate Weirds in Eden and their Sacred Tree.
The Eden Triad, El or Heide, her consort Wodan and their son Loki (Lucifer or Baldr).
Baldr, Abel or Loki and his Harem.
Atrocities of the Serpent-Priestess.
II. COMING OF THE ARYANS UNDER KING ADAM, HER-THOR OR AR-THUR, THE GOTH TO TROY, TO REGENERATE AND CIVILIZE THE WORLD, C. 3380 B.C.:
Disclosing his identity with Adam "of Eden" and as Thor-Dan with Dar-Danos, first king of Troy.
Founding of Troy by Ad(-am) Thor or Dar-Dan and Colonization of the Troad - the Holy Land of Thrud Hame.
Institution of Agriculture.
Institution of Laws and Industries.
III. CIVILIZATION OF ABORIGINAL DWARFS & OUTLYING TRIBES OF EDENITES BY ADAM-THOR:
Admission of Regenerate Dwarf Chiefs to Gothic Parliament.
IV. ADMISSION Of SELECTED REGENERATE ABORIGINAL CHIEFS TO MARRIAGE WITH THE GOTHS:
Thor and the All-Wise Dwarf.
V. ADVENTURES OF KING ADAM-THOR OR DAN DAR-DANOS) IN TROY AND THE TROAD WITH EDENITES:
Hoar-Beard's Tale - Altercation in Troad between Thor and the Edenite Wolf-Chief Wodan or Hoar-Beard.
The Weaver of Troy's Tale - Thor, as the Weaver of Troy, is visited by Wodan as a spy in disguise.
The Mystery of the Cocaine Mummies
In the 21st dynasty of the Pharaos, 3,000 years ago, there took place one night at a temple, the funeral of Henut Taui - the Lady of the Two lands.Then four years ago a German scientist, Dr Svetla Balabanova, made a discovery which was to baffle Egyptologists, and call into question whole areas of science and archeology to chemistry and botany.
She discovered that the body of Henut Taui contained large quantities of coc aine and nicotine. The surprise was not just that the ancient Egyptians had taken drugs, but that these drugs come from tobacco and coca, plants completly unknown outside the Americas, unheard of until Sir Walter Raleigh introduced smoking from the New World, or until coc aine was imported in the Victorian era.
It was seemingly impossible for the ancient Egyptians to get hold of these substances. And so began the mystery -
The Windover Archeological Site is an Early Archaic (6000 to 5000 BC) archaeological site found in Brevard County near Titusville, Florida, USA, on the central east coast of the state. Windover is a muck pond where skeletal remains of 168 individuals were found buried in the peat at the bottom of the pond. The skeletons were well preserved because of the characteristics of peat. In addition, remarkably well-preserved brain tissue has been recovered from many skulls from the site. DNA from the brain tissue has been sequenced. The collection of human skeletal remains and artifacts recovered from Windover Pond represent among the largest finds of each type from the Archaic Period.
Windover is a small pond, about .25 acres (1,000 m2) in area, that has held water continuously since sometime between 9000 and 8000 BC. It is next to the Atlantic coastal ridge about 5 miles (8 km) from Cape Canaveral. As the sea level was considerably lower 7,000 to 8,000 years ago than it is today, the pond originally sat above the water table, and was filled only by rainfall and runoff from the surrounding land. At that time the pond had a relatively thin layer of peat under a thin layer of water. The subsequent rise in sea level raised the local water table, and in more recent times the pond has been fed by groundwater as well as rainfall. In 1984 the pond had a thick layer of peat, with five strata described by the archaeologists who excavated the pond. The peat in the center of the pond was covered by 6 feet (2 m) of water.
Archaic stage (8000 BCE — 1000 BCE)
See also: Pre-Columbian era and History of Mesoamerica (Paleo-Indian)
Several thousand years after the first migrations, the first complex civilizations arose as hunter-gatherers settled into semi-agricultural communities. Identifiable sedentary settlements began to emerge in the so-called Middle Archaic period around 6000 BCE. Particular archaeological cultures can be identified and easily classified throughout the Archaic period.
In the late Archaic, on the north-central coastal region of Peru, a complex civilization arose which has been termed the Norte Chico civilization, also known as Caral-Supe. It is the oldest known civilization in the Americas and one of the six sites where civilization originated independently and indigenously in the ancient world, flourishing between the 30th and 18th centuries BC. It pre-dated the Mesoamerican Olmec civilization by nearly two millennia. It was contemporaneous with the Egypt following the unification of its kingdom under Menes and the emergence of the first Egyptian hieroglyphics.
Monumental architecture, including earthwork platform mounds and sunken plazas have been identified as part of the civilization. Archaeological evidence points to the use of textile technology and the worship of common god symbols. Government, possibly in the form of theocracy, is assumed to have been required to manage the region. However, numerous questions remain about its organization. In archaeological nomenclature, the culture was pre-ceramic culture of the pre-Columbian Late Archaic period. It appears to have lacked ceramics and art.
Sacred City of Caral-Supe
The 5000-year-old 626-hectare archaeological site of The Sacred City of Caral-Supe is situated on a dry desert terrace overlooking the green valley of the Supe river. It dates back to the Late Archaic Period of the Central Andes and is the oldest centre of civilization in the Americas. Exceptionally well-preserved, the site is impressive in terms of its design and the complexity of its architectural, especially its monumental stone and earthen platform mounts and sunken circular courts. One of 18 urban settlements situated in the same area, Caral features complex and monumental architecture, including six large pyramidal structures. A quipu (the knot system used in Andean civilizations to record information) found on the site testifies to the development and complexity of Caral society. The city’s plan and some of its components, including pyramidal structures and residence of the elite, show clear evidence of ceremonial functions, signifying a powerful religious ideology.
During its period of occupancy, approximately 1,000 years, Caral was remodelled several times. In fact, almost all of the buildings show successive periods of occupation.
Research carried out by a cross-disciplinary team has demonstrated that although the Supe Valley settlements were occupied in 3000 B.C., it was not until 2600 B.C. that their occupants became part of an organised social system with a "capital zone" in the lower middle valley. And it was this zone that was the centre of the most outstanding social and cultural tradition of the time.
Based on socio-cultural information and dating data, the theory has been posited that the influence of the social system of Supe first affected the populations of the nearest valleys. It then extended further and, by 2200 B.C., its influence had spread as far south as the archaeological site of El Paraiso in the Chillón Valley, and to all the valleys northward as far as the Santa River Valley.
The chronological sequence is summarised as follows:
- Remote Period (before 3000 B.C.): Land possession by groups of families/lineages.
- Ancient Period (3000-2600 B.C.): "Capital zone" growth; plazas and impressive buildings constructed.
- Final Middle Period (2300-2200 B.C.): Buildings enlarged in area and volume; large platforms and plazas constructed.
- Initial Late Period (2200-2100 B.C.): Public buildings remodelled; plazas constructed with quadrangular platform framework.
- Final Late Period (2100-1800 B.C.): Public buildings remodelled (using smaller stones); occupation of site reduced.
Throughout the occupancy of the site, there have been periods of great change, and it is possible to see clear distinctions in the design and architecture of the city, and the burial and renewal of buildings. There have also been minor changes or phases within each of the periods.
Each period is distinguishable from the one preceding it in several ways: elements of architectural style; building techniques; materials; and the colour of paint used on walls. However, the overall design is maintained as well as the associated cultural traditions and building functions. In reply to the letter sent to the State Party by ICOMOS on 13 January 2009 asking for further information regarding the sacred nature of the site, the State Party on 27 February 2009 explained to the satisfaction of ICOMOS the reason for this descriptor. The archaeological work to date has enabled researchers to establish the sacred nature of Caral through both architectural and contextual analyses. Both the city (in its urban plan) and its component parts (including, for example, the pyramidal structures and residences of the elite) show clear evidence of ceremonial functions, thereby signifying what can be called a powerful religious ideology.
Who Were The Si-Te-Cah
This 1995 article by Steve McNallen was written months before the discovery of the Kennewick Man or the current controversy over ancient Caucasians in North America. In retrospect, it seems hauntingly prophetic
Lovelock, Nevada, is about eighty miles northeast of Reno. It was in a cave near here, in 1911, that guano miners found mummies, bones, and artifacts buried under four feet of bat excrement. The desiccated bodies belonged to a very tall people - with red hair.
This is not the physical profile of your typical American Indian, to put it mildly. And in fact, the local Paiutes had legends about these towering troublemakers, whom they called the "Si-Te-Cah." According to them the redheads were a warlike people, and a number of the Indian tribes joined together in a long war against them. Eventually, the Paiutes and their allies forced the Si-Te-Cah back to their home acres, near Mount Shasta in our own California.
Mining engineer and amateur archeologist John T. Reid took an interest in the remains of the Si-Te-Cah and did his best to document the finds as they were unearthed. He also interviewed many locals who had knowledge of the affair. His memoirs can be found in the Nevada Historical Society Archives, located in Reno.
Official archeology refused to take an interest. According to reports, two investigators were sent to the scene. One was from the University of California, and the other from New York. Rather than unearthing facts, they seemed more interested in burying them - literally; we are told the New Yorker ordered a mummy reburied on at least once occasion. Nor was anything published about the anomalies until 1929, seventeen years after their visit.
Hopi believe star people and star knowledge will return at the end of the current cycle of time, as they have in past cycles. At the time of the Blue Kachina, star people visit the heart of the Earth to be protected during the world's destruction. When the first world was destroyed, people returned to the surface to live as ants for the duration of the second world. The third world describes an advanced civilization with flying shields and wars between distant cities eventually destroyed by great floods - Very similar to Babylonian mythology. Hopi are now caretakers of the fourth world in exchange for the privilege of living on Earth. They believe the coming of the fifth world is near and will commence when members of the Fire Clan return.
The Peaceful People, Hopi, live in northeast Arizona to this present day and are believed to be descendants from cultures to the north, east and south. Anasazi are ancestors is the Hopi, which creates a direct relation to the ancient Aztec culture. Though many civilizations around the world maintain religious beliefs of gods descending from the sky, the Hopi believe they came up from the ground. One of the many Hopi legends specifically references Ant People who inhabit the heart of the Earth. Artwork displaying the Ant People strongly resembles depictions found in modern gray alien encounter reports.
Inside the Intriguing Ancient Underground City of Derinkuyu
The underground city at Derinkuyu has 18 stories that descend far into the Earth. Sophisticated shafts, some as long as 180 feet, provide ventilation to the complex’s multitude of residences, communal rooms, tunnels, wine cellars, oil presses, stables and chapels.
The city also has numerous wells to provide fresh water. So many, that most scholars agree that Derinkuyu could have easily supported as many as 20,000 people.
It is widely presumed that the city was part of a larger complex; in support of this, many point to a commonly-believed rumor that a tunnel extends from Derinkuyu to its sister underground city, Kaymakli, some three miles away. Conventional wisdom holds that these cities were built for the same reasons other people built citadels and castles – to protect the populace during invasion. Some of the strongest evidence to support this theory includes the self-contained fresh water supply, as well as the enormous stone, circular doors, weighing up to 1,000 pounds, that could seal off passageways from invaders.
Derinkuyu had been lost to time until, during renovations on a modern home, an opening to a cave passage was revealed. Although visitors have been allowed in the underground city since 1965, many passages and rooms still remain inaccessible.
Who Brought The Mayans To Mexico?
Were the ancient Turks, Akkads (Sumerians) and Dravidians (Tamils) the parents of Mexico and Meso-America?
According to the Sumerian king list, Sargon reigned for fifty-six years and was considered a popular and successful king. After his death, the empire passed to his son Rimush, who was forced to endure what his father had and put down the rebellions which contested his legitimacy. Rimush reigned for nine years and, when he died, the kingship passed to Sargon’s other son, Manishtusu. Though both sons ruled well, the height of the Akkadian Empire was realized under Sargon's grandson, Naram-Sin. During his reign, the empire grew and flourished beyond the boundaries even Sargon had envisioned. After his death, his son Shar-Kali-Sharri became ruler and, at this time, the empire began to unravel as city-states broke away to form their own independent kingdoms. Further, it has been suggested that climate change weakened the empire, already reeling from rebellions within and attacks by the Elamites and Ammorites from without, to the point of collapse. Soon after, the Gutians, an invading tribe from the Zagros Mountains, destroyed Akkad and toppled the teetering Akkadian Empire, ushering in a dark age for Mesopotamia.
While Sargon called himself "King of Kish," military leader Naram-Sin was "King of the four corners" (of the universe) and a "living god." This status was an innovation that is recorded in an inscription that says the deification was at the request of the citizens
oh look: hor(ous)ns
as to the king of kish: his son: manistusu; the algonquin amerindian dye-ity: kishi manitou
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Aryans had strict rules of endogamy and exogamy. Marriage outside the racial group or within near degrees of kinship was forbidden. Outnumbered by a subject people whom they considered inferior to themselves, the Aryans foresaw that without restrictions on intermarriage they would lose their racial identity in just a few generations.
Puranic sources mention Krishna's disappearance marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga (present age), which is dated to February 17/18, 3102 BCE. Worship of the deity Krishna, either in the form of Vasudeva, Bala Krishna or Gopala can be traced to as early as 4th century BC. Worship of Krishna as svayam bhagavan, or the supreme being, known as Krishnaism, arose in the Middle Ages in the context of the bhakti movement. From the 10th century AD, Krishna became a favorite subject in performing arts and regional traditions of devotion developed for forms of Krishna